Johan Anderson från Strängnäs
Stålkofta (1646 -Swedish)
Staulcop (1656-Dutch)
Stalcop, Stallcop (1664- Eng)
Stallcup (1838-Am)
Stalcup (1890-Am)
Larry Spencer Stallcup
 

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FAMILY HISTORY
Family Background

 

NEW
SWEDEN
NORTH
CAROLINA
SCATTER


THE MEN BEHIND THE NEW SWEDEN COMPANY
 

Samuel Blommaert and Pieter Minuit: Dissatisfied with the Dutch West Indies Company they see a chance for revenge. Pieter Spierinck, art dealer and merchant, equally at home in Sweden and in Holland, the diplomat who had Oxenstierna’s confidence and became the Swedish ambassador in The Hague.

Clas Fleming, governor of Stockholm, enterprising admiral, New Sweden Company director. Axel Oxenstierna, the legendary Chancellor, Sweden's undisputed leader between King Gustavus Adolphus and Queen Cristina.

During the 1600s Sweden was a European “Great Power” and one of the major military and political combatants during the Thirty Years' War. By mid-century, the Swedish kingdom included part of Norway, all of Finland and stretched into Russia. Sweden's control of portions of modern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and Germany made the Baltic Sea essentially a Swedish lake.

 


Strängnäs is about 35 miles west of Stockholm. It is the probable
birthplace of Johan Anderson Stålkofta.

Perhaps inspired by the riches other Great Powers gathered from their overseas colonies, Sweden too sought to extend its influence to the New World. In 1637, Swedish, Dutch and German stockholders formed the New Sweden Company to trade for furs and tobacco in North America. Under the command of Peter Minuit, the company's first expedition sailed from Sweden late in 1637 in two ships, Kalmar Nycke and Fogel Grip. Minuit had been the governor of the Dutch colony, New Netherland, centered on Manhattan Island, from 1626 to 1631.

The ships reached Delaware Bay in the spring of 1638, and the settlers began to build a fort at the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. They named it Fort Christina in honor of Sweden's child queen. It was the first permanent European settlement in the Delaware Valley.

During the next seventeen years, thirteen more Swedish expeditions left the homeland for New Sweden. All but one expedition survived the voyage. A total of eleven vessels, several more than once, and 600 colonists safely reached their destination. The colony eventually consisted of farms and small settlements along both banks of the Delaware River into modern Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.

New Sweden rose to its greatest heights during the governorship of Johan Printz (1643-1653). He extended settlement northward from Fort Christina along both sides of  the Delaware River and improved the colony's military and commercial prospects by building Fort Elfsborg on the New Jersey side of the river, to seal the Delaware against English and Dutch ships. He built Fort Korsholm, a trading fort, at the mouth of the Schuylkill River to deny Dutch fur trading on the west side of the river. Despite these steps the colonists lived peacefully with their Dutch and Lenni Lenape neighbors.

In 1654, the colony's last governor, Johan Risingh, succeeded Johan Printz at a time when the Governor-General Peter Stuyvesant ruled the Dutch capitol of New Amsterdam. Immediately upon arriving in New Sweden Governor Risingh foolishly attempted to remove the Dutch from the colony by seizing Fort Casimir (Dutch), downstream of Fort Christina on the western shore of the river at present-day New Castle, Delaware. With little ammunition and no gunpowder, the Dutch garrison of Fort Casimir surrendered without a shot. It was re-named Fort Trinity.

New Netherlands Governor Stuyvesant mounted an invasion the following summer when seven armed Dutch ships carrying 317 soldiers appeared on the Delaware River. Realizing that resistance would be useless the vastly outnumbered Swedes surrendered Fort Trinity. Fort Christina and the entire colony were surrendered by Governor Risingh two weeks later.

Our first Stalcop ancestor was deeply involved in the affairs of New Sweden. It was immediately after his falling under Dutch rule that the Stalcop family was begun. Christina Carlsdaughter arrived some months after the surrender on the last ship sailing from Sweden in support of the colony. She was soon to be the bride of Johan Stålkofta.

Swedish sovereignty over New Sweden was at an end, but the Swedish presence was very much in evidence. Governor Stuyvesant permitted the colonists to continue as a “Swedish Nation” and allowed them to be free to be governed by a court of their own choosing, practice their own religion, organize their own militia, take title to their land holdings and continue trading with the native people. This independent “Swedish Nation” continued even after the Dutch lost out to the English in 1664 under the Duke of York until 1681 when another Englishman, William Penn, received his charter for Pennsylvania and the three lower counties, the present-day Delaware.

The colonist and their descendants continued to reside in the former New Sweden Colony area until just a few years before the start of the Revolutionary War. Then a general exodus from the former New Sweden Colony took place. Not only the Stalcop family but the majority of the original New Sweden settler families moved out of the area.


NEW SWEDEN IN AMERICA
The majority of the Stalcop family resided in the immediate area of Fort Christina during the first century of the family in America.

During the exodus the Stalcop family split between two different migration routes. One group went west toward the Ohio River and points westward. The other group went south into North Carolina with members of later generations heading in the general direction of Texas. The promise of free, or very cheap, land was the lure for both groups.


 

THE GOVERNORS OF NEW SWEDEN
Larry S. Stallcup


Six men served as governor of the New Sweden Colony in America. Four were appointed as official Governors. The first one may or may not be considered as an official Governor in the traditional meaning of the title. Peter Minuit was the Commander of the expedition that founded the Colony. He may or may not have lived in the Colony as a resident. The historical records are cloudy on that point. Some stories have him was lost at sea, If so then he never resided in the Colony. If he was not lost at sea as other records indicate then he lived in the Colony for about a full year and may have served as governor.

Johan Andersson “Stålkofta” was in the Colony serving under the last five governors. He arrived as a boy to work as a farm hand and in the end became the owner of all of the New Sweden Colony reserve land at Christina and even owned the Fort itself.

 

PETER MINUIT


Peter Minuit was a Walloon whose protestant parents moved from Doornik, Henegouwen in the southern Netherlands, which then included present-day Belgium, to Wesel in Germany, in order to escape from the Catholic Spanish. Minuit's birth year is not exactly known but probably was before 1589. Peter Minuit married Gertrude Raedts on August 20, 1613. Gertrude came from a wealthy family. That probably helped Peter in establishing himself. In a legal document, a will written in the Dutch City of Utrecht in 1615, he is described as a diamond cutter.

Peter Minuit joined the Dutch West India Company, probably in the early1620's, and was sent to New Netherland in 1625 to search for tradable goods other than the animal pelts which were then the major product coming from New Netherland. In 1626 he was appointed by the Dutch West India Company to become the new Governor-General of New Netherland, taking over from Willem Verhulst. Minuit arrived in New Amsterdam on May 4, 1626.

Although Peter Minuit was Governor-General of the colony for five years he is best known for his purchase of Manhattan Island from the Indians for 60 guilders. The price was estimated to be about $24 in 1926 dollars, probably equivalent to about $6 to 7 hundred dollars today. The purchase was made either in May or July of 1626.

Peter Minuit's tenure as Governor-General was uneventful compared with other governor-generals of the Dutch colony. Upon his arrival in 1626, he proposed a plan to establish an advisory body to the governor general. The advisory body would be a council of five members, which would advise the governor general, and would jointly with the governor general develop, administer and adjudicate a body of laws to govern the colony. In addition he proposed the institution of what today would call an attorney general to enforce the laws.

In 1631 or 1632 Minuit was relieved of his duties as governor-general. What the reasons were for his termination is not clear, but the directors of the Dutch West India Company were business people and Minuit may have made decisions that were, in their view, not in the interest of the Dutch West India Company organization.

Of the governor-generals of the New Amsterdam colony only two are well known.

Peter Stuyvesant is best known. Following his orders he conducted the invasion of New Sweden. In turn Stuyvesant had to surrender to the British because he found himself in much the same position as had placed the Swedes. He was faced with overwhelming military force.
 


Peter Minuit is well known probably largely because he made the historic purchase of Manhattan. He may also be remembered because of the relative peace that existed in the colony during his tenure. There was peace among the population of New Amsterdam, but there was also relative peace with the Native Americans who then still lived in close proximity to the Dutch settlers. This changed drastically after he was replaced.

Peter Minuit is remembered today with a number of public mementoes. On Manhattan there is a Peter Minuit Plaza, a small park in lower Manhattan. There is also the Peter Minuit marker in Inwood Hill Park commemorating the purchase of Manhattan. Then there is the Peter Minuit Flagstaff Base in Battery Park and the Peter Minuit School. The DAR has named one of their chapters the Peter Minuit chapter. Finally, in Wesel Germany, there is a Peter Minuit Memorial on Moltkestrasse.

After his governor-generalship of New Netherland ended Minuit applied to the Swedish Government to establish a settlement, called New Sweden, near what is now Wilmington, Delaware. It was in territory claimed by both the Dutch and English.

The instructions given to Peter Minuit are interesting, to say the least. According to his SECRET orders he was instructed to sail south “behind” England and Scotland, that is, to sail through the English Channel, to the latitude of 44 degrees. From there he was to turn west and sail across the Atlantic Ocean to the first destination, Sable Island, if this course was possible.  Sable island is off the coast of Nova Scotia.  For a 17th century sail powered ship sailing against the prevailing winds and ocean currents, this route across the Atlantic would have been very difficult. Once arriving at Sable Island he was ordered to take soundings all around the island and make maps and sketches of the island showing all rivers, harbors and roads (ship anchorages). Sable Island is classed as a sand bar. It is crescent shaped, 26 miles long and less than a mile wide and very low in relation to sea level. There is no record of the course the ships actually followed or if they made it to Sable Island.

A second instruction named Jan Hindrickson van der Water as skipper of the Kalmar Nyckel and Michel Symonssen as First Mate. Both were Dutchmen. If any mishap befell Peter Minuit making it impossible for him to continue with his duties them Symonssen was take his place. This instruction appears to contain the seeds of what might have happened to Peter Minuit.

It was reported by the officers of the Kalmar Nyckel that during his return from New Sweden in 1638 Minuit in the Kalmar Nyckel and sailed south to the Caribbean to trade for a load of tobacco. The story goes that while having dinner aboard a nearby Dutch ship a hurricane suddenly forced all ships out to sea. The crew reported that Minuit was never seen again however the Kalmar Nyckel did, under Symonssen, make it back to the Netherlands and then on to Sweden without him.

The story the ship’s crew told about what happened to Peter Minuit is most unlikely.

First. Tobacco was available in large quantities in Virginia, and from the Native Americans. It generally was not available in the Caribbean. The trade goods supplied to Minuit by the voyage backers are reported to have been dress shoes and French wines. If that cargo could have been traded at all for tobacco in the Caribbean he probably would have traded it on the way to New Sweden because he knew from experience the cargo was not suitable goods for trade with the Native Americans.

Second. The trip from the South River to the Caribbean would be a very, very slow, hard trip if it were possible at all. The ship would be sailing the entire distance against both the prevailing winds and the strong northbound current of the Gulf Stream. It was a nearly impossible trip for an unpowered sailing ship that had a hull speed of only about five knots and could not sail very close to the direction of the wind. The combination of wind and current would be greater than the hull speed of the Kalmar Nyckel. The ship would have to tack, that is, sail a zigzag pattern at an sharp angle to the wind and current back and forth across the intended course, for nearly the entire voyage. That makes the voyage length many times the length of a straight-line course. That is why the usual route to New Sweden was first south down along the African coast and then west across the Atlantic at the latitude of the Caribbean and then back northward. This southern route took advantage of sailing with both the wind and the ocean currents for the entire voyage.

Third. The National Hurricane Center of the U S National Weather Service has conducted an enormous amount of research tracking and documenting historic hurricanes by examining ships logbooks in archives all over he world. The problem is that there is no record of any hurricane that forced a number of ships out to sea to match the story told by the crew of the Kalmar Nyckel. Their story of the sudden hurricane appears to be total fiction.

Forth. Hurricanes have high wind speeds inside them but slow forward speeds. The build up to hurricane force winds takes place over a period of several days. Large waves, rough seas and rain bands appear well ahead of the storm. The crew of the Kalmar Nyckel would have us believe that a hurricane snuck up and struck full force upon an entire harbor of ships very quickly while Peter Minuit was aboard another ship having dinner. That is simply not creditable.

Fifth.  Rev. Israel Acrelius says that Minuit stayed at Fort Christina(1) and died there in July 1639(2). Mans Kling continued as Governor until Peter Hollander Ridder took over as New Sweden Governor in 1640. Later in his history Acrelius states that when Rev Eric Björk arrived in 1697 Peter Minuit’s grave was pointed out to him.

It seems far more likely that the story told by the ship’s crew upon their return to the Netherlands is a cover-up. It seems much more likely that they deliberately sailed away from New Sweden leaving Peter Minuit stranded ashore and they concocted the hurricane story to hide what they had done.
 

MANS NILSSON KLING
 

The first appointed governor of the Colony of New Sweden, which he administrated from Fort Christina, was Måns Nilsson Kling.

The first expedition to North America began with two ships, Kalmar Nyckel and the Fogel Grip, sailing from the city of Gothenburg in 1637. Peter Minuit had proposed planting a Swedish colony on the South (now Delaware) River. The expedition became a joint Dutch and Swedish venture following the recommendations of Willem Usselincx, one of the directors of the Dutch West India Company. It was organized and overseen by Swedish Admiral Clas Fleming. Samuel Blommaert, a Dutch colonial patron, assisted with the fitting-out.

Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna appointed Peter Minuit to lead the expedition. The expedition reached the location now known as the Rocks in present-day Wilmington, Delaware on March 29, 1638. Peter Minuit directed the erection of Fort Christina and established the beginnings of the trade with the Native Americans. He then left the colony on June 15, 1638 to attempt to trade the ship’s cargo of shoes and wines for tobacco in the Virginia Colony. What happened to Peter Minuit afterward is a matter of some conjecture.
______________________
 

Måns Kling, who had been promoted to Captain, was sent out on the first expedition as commander of the soldiers. Kling is believed to have been from the military lists of the times, serving in Adolf Hård's Regiment in Jönköping, Småland. He served first as a private and then later as an officer, before being discharged in 1636.

Kling surveyed the land upon arrival in New Sweden and made a map of the whole river area. This is one of the tasks Minuit was charged with doing. Kling’s map is reported to be in the Royal Archives of Sweden. Mans Nilsson Kling was placed in command of 23 other members of the expedition staying in New Sweden Colony upon the departure of Peter Minuit. Mans Kling carried out the duties of governor until Lieutenant Peter Hollander Ridder, of the Swedish Navy, arrived in New Sweden on April 17, 1640.

Kling went back to Sweden in 1640. He returned to the colony on the Kalmar Nyckel in 1641, to serve as lieutenant at a salary of 40 florins (Dutch money) a month beginning on May 1, 1641. He brought with him his wife, a servant girl and a small child. Of particular importance to us is that Mans Kling was sent on a recruiting trip to find colonist to go to New Sweden. He signed up Johan Andersson, a boy, on the steps of City Hall even before he left Strängnäs on the recruiting trip. This is the same Johan Andersson who in New Sweden later became known by the name of “Stålkofta”/Stalcop.

Kling took on various tasks for Governor Printz. One of these was the command of Fort New Korsholm. He and his family returned to Sweden on the ship Swan in 1648.
 


PETER HOLLANDER RIDDER
Ken Peterson


Peter Hollander Ridder was born about 1609 in either Holland or Germany, the son of Hans Hollender and Anna Robertsdotter. The boarder was rather fluid. His father later became a merchant and customs officer in Ekenas, Nyland, Finland where Peter was raised. He entered Swedish Naval service perhaps as early as 1635 or as late as 1639.

Ridder arrived in New Sweden on 17 April 1640 aboard the ship Kalmar Nyckel and replaced Mans Kling as commander of the colony at Fort Christina.  He served as Governor of the New Sweden colony from 1640 to 1643. 

As governor, Peter Hollander Ridder purchased from the Indians land on the Jersey side of the South river from Narraticon Kill [Raccoon Creek] down along the coast to Cape May, increasing the colony geography considerably.

The Swedish writer Aft Aberg talked about Ridder;

Ridder had expanded the colony, building 3 houses inside Fort Christina for the new inhabitants. And he had a windmill built next to the fort where corn was ground in fall and winter. Skilled craftsmen were lacking in the colony. This caused Ridder to unfairly remark “It would be hard to find more inept people in all of Sweden.”  There were only 20 soldiers in New Sweden in Ridder’s time.

Ridder sailed upriver in a sloop and refused to halt at Dutch Fort Nassau even though the Fort fired warning shots (3 cannon and a musket). Above Fort Nassau Ridder met Indians and purchased the land from the Schuylkill to present Trenton. Back south he purchased from the Indian Wikusi the land from Duck Creek to Cape Henlopen.

In November 1640 the ship “Freedenburgh” with 50 Dutch colonists were given permission to settle 20 (Dutch ?) miles above Fort Christina. This Dutch colony simply vanished.

Ridder protested the landing and settling of the New Haven English at Varken’s Kill (Mill Creek) under Lamberton and Turner. Gregorius Van Dyke was sent to lodge a protest. Lamberton ignored the protest, uprooting the Swedish coat of arms and sent it back to Fort Christina. All members of this English colony eventually just left.

The Swedish government may have felt the need to replace Ridder with an experienced soldier due to the mounting tension between New Sweden and the Dutch. Johan Printz replaced Ridder as Governor in 1643. When he arrived Ridder gave Printz a tour of the entire river to show the extent of the New Sweden possessions. Ridder returned to Sweden on the ship Fama. He rejoined the Swedish Navy and served at the castle in Viborg, Finland, for most of the rest of his career. When he died his son reported that he had served the Swedish government for 56 years.
 

JOHAN BJORNSSON PRINTZ
Adapted from a article by Dr. Eric G. M. Törnqvist
Former Governor, Swedish Colonial Society
 

Few Americans have ever heard of Johan Printz or New Sweden, yet, the accomplishments of Johan Printz during his years as governor, 1642-1653, have caused him to be compared favorably with such contemporaries as John Winthrop in New England and Peter Stuyvesant in New Amsterdam.

He was the son of a Lutheran pastor, Björn Hansson, and Gunilla Svensdotter. Printz received his early education in Sweden followed in 1618 by theological studies at German universities. While on a journey in about 1620, he was pressed into military service. The involuntary change in occupation turned out to suit him.

During the Thirty Years' War he initially became a mercenary for Archduke Leopold of Austria, Duke Christian of Brunswick, and King Christian IV of Denmark. Printz entered the Swedish army in 1625 rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel under King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. He was born in Bounaryd, County of Jönköping in the province of Småland, Sweden. His father was a Lutheran minister and Printz received the best possible education in Sweden with the intent that he also enter the church. A lack of means forced him to discontinue his theological studies after only one year at the age of 26.

He then shifted his attention to a military career and served under King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in Poland and in the Thirty Year's War. However, due to a tactical error in judgment he was dismissed from service for surrendering the Saxon town of Chemnitz in 1640 and, though exonerated, it halted his military career and he went into retirement. In July 1642, Printz's military career resumed when he was knighted and appointed Royal Governor of New Sweden.
 

 
In 1641, the New Sweden Company had decided to buy out the Dutch participants. Afterward New Sweden was a wholly Swedish venture with the government of Sweden as one of the stockholders. John Printz was appointed governor at the age of 50 in 1642.

A new charter was drafted with 28 articles. The Instruction deals in great detail with the treatment of the various groups living within the territory of New Sweden. Most remarkable is the article dealing with the treatment of the Indians. As a consequence of these instructions, the Swedes enjoyed far better relations with the Indians than did any other European group and never experienced the massacres of the type visited on the Dutch and the English. The last article of The Instruction states that Printz's appointment is for three years. He would then be free to return home. He ended up staying years longer.

Two ships, the Fama and the Swan, left Gothenburg, early in November and arrived at Fort Christina in February. On his arrival, Commander Ridder assisted Printz in surveying the colony and becoming familiar with its operation. The survey was very thorough and went the full distance from Cape Henlopen to Sankikin (Trenton Falls). He noted particular points that would be of importance for defense of the colony and areas that were suitable for agriculture.

He built a new fort below present Salem and called it Elfsborg. The heaviest cannon available were positioned there and by early May 1643 any foreign vessel trying to pass had to strike its flag before being allowed to proceed. The garrison, 13 men under Sven Skute, was the largest in the colony. He erected a second large fort, used for the Indian Trade, Fort Korshom, on an island near the mouth of the
Printz wasted no time selecting a new place for his residence as authorized in the Instruction. He chose Tinicum Island just south of the present Philadelphia Airport. He built both a Governor’s residence with supporting buildings and a fortified house, New Gothenburg, for their defense. The fortified house was ready by early May.

The first buildings have been described in some detail, but a fire in November 1645 destroyed all of them except for the storehouse. The residence was rebuilt shortly thereafter. Peter Lindeström, who arrived in New Sweden in 1654, tells us that Printz had a hall built "for himself and his family, which is called Printzhof - very splendidly and well built with a pleasure garden, summer house and other such things." Tinicum therefore became the first seat of government in what is now the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Printzhof can be considered its first State House.

In addition to living quarters for the governor and his family, the building contained several rooms for office use, for record keeping, and for court proceedings, as well as for receiving commissioners from adjacent colonies and other prominent visitors. It is known that some of the interior woodwork came from Sweden as did at least some of the bricks used for the construction of two or more fireplaces. Many windows of glass added to the luxury. Printz had his private residence at Upland, a farm known as Printzdorf.

Printzhof also became the first seat of a court and Printz the first chief judge in present Pennsylvania.

Fort Christina was repaired during the summer of 1643, and a blockhouse was built to the north at Upland (now Chester), an area in which many of the Finns settled. Printz assigned land to the freemen and he established commercial and political relations with the Indians. As instructed, Printz paid great attention to religious matters and, in addition to the church at Christina, he built a "new beautiful church" at Tinicum that was consecrated in 1646. Above all he made efforts to assert the Swedish rights to the New Sweden territory against the counter claims of the Dutch and the English.

The colony prospered, but the problems with the surrounding Dutch and English gradually increased in severity. Both nations claimed the Swedish territory by virtue of the first discovery. However, neither had ever established a permanent settlement in the New Sweden territory and neither had purchased the land from the Indians. Printz made every effort to keep peace with both groups.

Commercially, the colony began to suffer a setback in the beginning of 1644. The ships that brought Printz to New Sweden carried only a small cargo and hardly anything for Indian trade. As a consequence, Printz could not prevent the Dutch and the English from almost monopolizing the beaver trade. Finally the Fama arrived with a large cargo in March 1644. Now the Swedes could resume the Indian trade and the ship left for Europe with a large cargo of tobacco and skins.

Printz had become greatly encouraged by the progress made during the first year of his administration, but he was also keenly aware of the great problems associated with a lack of manpower. He therefore sent an urgent request for 1,000 colonists and additional supplies.

Nearly two and one-half years later in October 1646 the next ship, the Gyllene Haj (Golden Shark), arrived with a large cargo both for the Indian trade and the needs of the colony that gave raise to considerable joy in New Sweden where, despite the lack of manpower and fresh supplies, considerable progress had been made after the Fama left. A gristmill was constructed on Cobbs Creek that was the first manufacturing facility within the limits of present-day Pennsylvania and can be considered a forerunner of the huge industrial establishments that eventually grew up within the Commonwealth. Printz constructed a wharf at Fort Christina, and he built several ships, one of 100 tons burden.

One of these ships was outfitted using a “yacht” type sail arrangement. This name has cause all sorts of confusion with claim that he had built himself a “pleasure yacht” within the modern meaning of the term. He used his yacht-rigged vessel to haul cargo up and down the river. It had movable sideboards rather than a fixed keel for directional control so it could sail in shallow water up some of the creeks that joined the South, or Delaware, river.

When the Gyllene Haj arrived, Printz expected to be recalled since he had been in charge of the colony for more than three years and under very difficult conditions, years "that were longer and more arduous to him than all of the previous twenty-four during which he had served his dear fatherland". He "'became sad" when he was instructed to stay a few years longer because no suitable successor could be found. However, he accepted the extension of his appointment and proclaimed a special day of Thanksgiving. The settlers assembled in the new church and gave praise to God with a holy "Te Deum" (Latin, an expression of thanksgiving or exultation.)

After the arrival of the Gyllene Haj, the outlook was better in New Sweden. Printz's report showed the colony was still very small, 183 souls in all, but the conditions were greatly improved. Printz' sent a report of the past activity. He also sent a list of needed articles and a request for skilled workmen to needed to complete a barge.

Preparations were already underway in Sweden for a new expedition. The Swan was selected and left Gothenburg with one of the largest cargoes ever for the Indian trade. The Swan arrived in good condition in January 1648.

With the arrival of the Swan, Printz had again hoped to be relieved of his duties but was directed to remain. The conditions would now have given rise to considerable optimism in New Sweden, were it not for the increasingly aggressive stance of the Dutch exacerbated by the arrival of Peter Stuyvesant as Director General of New Netherlands.

The letters and reports from New Sweden apparently made a major impression when read in Stockholm. It was now decided to send a new expedition - the Katten (Cat). This ship and its passengers never arrived in New Sweden but were shipwrecked and ended in atrocities at the hands of the French and Spaniards from which only 19 survived and returned to Sweden.

The situation in New Sweden grew increasingly worse. In May of 1651 Stuyvesant sent a fleet of eleven ships with cannon and people "well armed from New Amsterdam." Printz readied his little yacht and sailed it with his entire force of 30 soldiers to trail after the Dutch fleet. The Dutch fleet made several long loops up and down the river firing salutes, banners and flags flying and drummers beating at the rail of all ships.
 
Printz could not do anything but follow at some distance. Failing to entice an armed response from Printz to justify an invasion Stuyvesant landed at Sandhook (New Castle) and used 200 men to build a fort. He named Ft. Casimir. The fort was strategically placed to disrupt communications with Fort Elfsborg so it could not be reactivated.

Stuyvesant soon obtained title to the land Minquas Kill (Christina River) down to the Bay, land that had already been purchased by the Swedes. Protests and copies of deeds were sent to Stuyvesant but he ignored them. Printz had no choice but to accept the fact that the Dutch were masters of the Delaware, at least for the time being. Ft. Elfsborg had been abandoned and the garrisons of some of the other strong houses were withdrawn so Printz could concentrate his forces. Heavy rains did damage to the grain stores in 1652 and the situation in the colony grew steadily worse. Printz continued to send pleas for help to Sweden, but without response.

The colonists themselves were dissatisfied and many deserted. The situation continued throughout the winter, spring and summer of 1653. By the fall of that year it reached a crisis point and a "protest" broke out against Printz, who had been ill and unable to exert his former energy during much of the year. Several severe grievances against the governor were presented in a written supplication of eleven articles signed by 22 settlers. This invoked the wrath of the governor. Printz had the leader of the opposition arrested, tried and executed on a charge of treachery.

Printz finally decided to go to Sweden in the fall of 1653 to obtain help himself. Elaborate preparations were made for his departure. In September, Indian chiefs were called to Printzhof, speeches were made, gifts presented, etc. Above all, Printz assured the Indians that large new supplies would soon arrive because he himself was going to the fatherland to take care of the matter. After a farewell service in the church, Printz turned the command of the colony over to his son-in-law, Johan Papegoja, and left for New Amsterdam.

Printz lay in a sickbed in the Netherlands as his replacement, Johan Risingh, on his way to New Sweden passed by without stopping. Being 62 years old when he returned to Sweden in 1654, he spent the next three years without an official position but he was made a general. In 1658 he was appointed Governor of Jönköping County. While traveling from his estate, Gunillaberg, not far from his birth place, Bottnaryd, to Jönköping in the spring of 1663, he was thrown from his horse and died of injuries on May 3rd, at age of 71. His first wife, Elizabeth von Boche, who he had married in 1622 and his son, predeceased him. Five daughters and his second wife, Maria von Linnestau, who he had married in 1642, survived him.
 

JOHAN PAPEGOJA
Acting governor of the New Swedish Colony


Johan Papegoja had been one of the early Swedish settlers on the Delaware. Papegoja is the Swedish word for parrot. He served as a Lieutenant at New Sweden under governor Johan Björnsson Printz. During 1644, Johan Papegoja was married to Armegott Printz, one of the daughters of Governor Printz.

Since it was an arranged marriage, Armegott Printz demanded certain concessions. One of these is the big red house located inside of Fort Christina as shown on the 1654 Lindeström map. She and her children lived there until Governor Risingh confiscated it for his own use and force her to move.

Johan Papegoja made several voyages between Sweden and the Delaware River New Sweden Colony. He traveled back and forth during 1643 aboard the Fama, in 1647 on the Swan and during 1655 on board the Mercurius.

Papegoja was named the acting governor of New Sweden by Governor Johan Björnsson Printz when he departure for Sweden October 1653. Printz was intending to procure aid for the New Sweden Colony. Papegoja remained Acting Governor for about eight months until the arrival of Johan Classon Risingh during May 1654.

Papegoja was assigned by Risingh the duty of sailing to Sweden to obtain additional settlers to the colony. The Mercurius left Sweden during November 1655 and arrived in the Delaware River during March 1656. By the time the ship arrived, Risingh had surrendered New Sweden to the Dutch. In a short time, Johan Papegoja had a falling-out with the Dutch and he departed for Sweden in 1656 leaving his wife and children behind.

The date and place of his birth is unknown. Johan Papegoja is believed to have died at Ramstorp manor, Ångarp parish, Skaraborg, now in Västra Götaland, Sweden, March 23, 1667.

During 1662, Armegott Printz sold Printzhof, the estate that Governor Printz had owned on Tinicum Island. She received partial payment with the promise of the remainder to be paid later. However, subsequent payment was refused. She brought suit for the recovery of the estate. Ten years later in 1672, Armegott Printz recovered the estate. She subsequently sold the property a second time and returned to Sweden. She died on November 25, 1695 at Läckö Castle.
 

The Loss of New Sweden and RISINGH’S  DECEPTIONS
© 2012   All rights Reserved  -  Larry Spencer Stallcup

 

Johan Classon Risingh was the last governor of the Swedish colony of New Sweden.

He was born in 1617 in Risinge, Östergötland, Sweden. After gymnasium (a school that prepares pupils for university entrance.) at Linköping, he attended the University of Uppsala and University of Leyden. From 1651 to 1653, he held the office of secretary of the Commercial College of Sweden. He wrote the first treatise on trade and economics ever compiled in Sweden in the autumn of 1653. He was ennobled just before he set out from Sweden early in 1654, to take up duties in New Sweden. His orders read that he was to assist Governor Printz but if Printz was dead or no longer in the Colony he was to assume the office of Governor.

Risingh was specifically directed in his orders to AVOID any and all confrontations with the Dutch at Fort Cassimir. He was directed to sail by avoiding any contact. He was directed to reactivate Fort Elfsborg and to build a new fort on the west bank of the main river directly opposite of Fort Elfsborg.

Risingh made no attempt to follow his orders. He seemed only intent upon improving his own condition of superiority. He behaved more like a dictator than a governor.

Risingh’s first blunder occurred on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean. Before sailing Risingh learned Governor Printz was lying sick in Amsterdam. He deliberately ordered the Skipper of the Örn (Eagle), Jan Jansson Bockhorn, not to dock in the Netherlands where voyage repairs were normally preformed prior to setting out across the ocean. Rising deliberately deprived himself of a briefing from Printz who would have told him about conditions in New Sweden.

Had Risingh followed his clear orders he would have reestablished Swedish control over shipping on the river without ever having any direct conflict with Fort Cassimir. Had Risingh followed his orders Stuyvesant would not have had Risingh’s "military capture” of Fort Cassimir his first day on the job to use as the excuse to invade and take over all of New Sweden. Governor Printz was smart enough not to get caught in the trap but Risingh eagerly leaped right into the shark's mouth. Risingh probably realized he had blundered badly right away when he, or perhaps Swen Skute, walked into the captured fort and discovered that all of the Dutch cannons were inoperable.

Fort Cassimir was a decoy fort because none of it’s cannons could be fired. During the three years since it had been built it had never been supplied with cannonballs and gunpowder. Thanks to Risingh’s senseless acts the baited trap worked. In late May 1654, only about three weeks after his arrival, Risingh received a letter from Stuyvesant telling him that the Dutch were coming in force to take over all of New Sweden in direct response to his military attack and capture of Fort Cassimir. At that moment, just weeks after his arrival and capture of Fort Cassimir, Risingh knew without any doubt whatsoever that he alone was responsible for the lost of the entirety of the New Sweden Colony. Contrary to his later claim that the Dutch invasion was unexpected he knew it was coming sixteen months in advance. Rather than trying to negotiate a settlement with the Dutch or prepare defenses Risingh set about to find someone he could blame for his blunders. He went farther in trying to ensure that some of his fellow colonist and soldiers would likely be killed during the Dutch invasion.

In reply Rising sent a letter to Stuyvesant saying that it was agreeable to him if the Dutch killed everyone south of the Christina River if he, Stuyvesant, would stop the invasion at that point and leave him and his "estate" alone. Stuyvesant did not reply to this letter. From his silence Risingh apparently assumed that Stuyvesant agreed with his death proposal. Risingh apparently had the idea that if everyone at Trinity died then no one would be left alive who knew how badly he had blundered by disobeying his orders.

Risingh again violated his specific orders when he directed Swen Skute to build Fort Trinity in front of Fort Cassimir thereby blocking sight of the river from the Dutch fort and rendering it completely useless. Risingh’s orders read that he was to build a new fort ten miles downstream opposite Elfsborg. Even worse, Risingh ignored all advice and ordered Skute to build Trinity out of timber. As a trained military officer Swen Skute knew that timber forts became lethal when hit by cannon fire. This is because wood tends to shatter into long splinters and fly out in a cloud in all directions. That is why earth is mounded up against the outside walls of timber forts. The earth tends to dampen the flight of the splinters. Fort Cassimir and Fort Christina are both examples of this precaution.

Skute knew how Risingh’s orders read. He knew Trinity was structurally inadequate, militarily useless, lethal to the men manning it and located in the wrong place. It would have made much more sense to put the four available cannons inside Fort Cassimir in place of some of the non-usable Dutch cannons and not build the timber fort at all. That long, narrow, two-story, all timber bulwark fort Risingh ordered Swen Skute to build, purely and simply, was a death trap. No doubt Risingh had been told this again and again.

When Fort Trinity was completed apparently two of the four cannons available, odd-sized captured Danish 14-pound cannons obtained from the ship EAGLE, were placed on the gun deck and test fired. Because the second level structural arrangement was completely inadequate, built the worst possible way in a stacked log manner similar to a log cabin the recoil force from the firing predictably pushed over a section of the back wall. This caused the collapse of part of the gun deck where the cannons were located. The cannons were destroyed during their plunge of about 24 feet down through the wreckage to the ground. It seems likely Swen Skute, who probably was well aware of what would happen, arranged the test firing without Risingh’s knowledge. Apparently no member of the gun firing crew was caught up in the collapse of the gun deck. That implies that the cannon (s) were fired from some safe distance.

This left only two serviceable weapons available at Fort Trinity. During the siege visiting Dutch officers were blindfolded with arm scarves so they could not see the damage. To make a bad situation even worse Risingh next ordered Skute to mount the two remaining weapons in trenches dug in front of Fort Trinity. Timber which would shatter into splinters standing at the gun crew’s back make that decision lethal. It also gave the Dutch gunners on the ships a very large target. Had the trenches been located north or south without a big wall behind them the gun emplacements would have been a more difficult target to hit.

The drumming and sail dipping on the Dutch ships as they sailed past probably did not cause any confusion. Skute knew that if the Swedes fired even a single musket shot at the Dutch fleet Stuyvesant would have leveled everything and Stuyvesant had the massive firepower on his ships to do it. Later Stuyvesant told Skute that is exactly what his orders to the Dutch fleet said. He told Skute that not even a chicken could have lived through the planned bombardment had the Swedes fired at the ships.

With only two serviceable 14-pounders available just one side of one Dutch ship sailing by out gunned the Swedes about 9 to 1. Dutch soldiers, not counting the sailors, outnumbered the Swedish defenders about 10 to 1. One or two cannonball hits on that timber fort probably would have killed the entire Swedish garrison from flying splinters. Nearly all 37 members of the garrison were either standing on top of, or standing in the gun trenches in front of, Fort Trinity as the Dutch ships sailed by. After the munity that first afternoon only 16 defenders signed the affidavits at the surrender. The rest were disarmed and locked up. After the munity the remaining defenders were outnumbered about 20 to 1.

Skute soon received unexpected orders, written by Risingh himself, to surrender Fort Trinity.

The covert canoe messenger, Anders Dalbo, took Swen Skute’s report of the arrival of the Dutch fleet to Risingh’s and returned with written order to Skute during the first night of the siege. Risingh ordered Skute to delay as long as possible and then surrender. Skute followed Risingh's orders precisely. He delayed for three days before he surrendered. During the Court Martial hearings Risingh tried to imply that surrendering the fort was all Skute’s idea and that his surrender caused the loss of all of New Sweden. Skute prudently kept Risingh’s written orders, and kept it secret, for presentation to higher authorities should he be forced to stand trial in Sweden.

Risingh probably realized that he had to create a lot of confusion and misdirection to cover up his blunders and violations of his orders. He did that by vigorously pointing his finger at Swen Skute who had been correct about everything all along. To create confusion Risingh included all the officers serving at Fort Trinity - except Lindeström - in his blame-shifting scheme and brought all of them to trial in his Court Martial hearings. Concealing the Fort Christina ammunition inside the Fort Christina walls and claiming he had sent it all to aid the men at Fort Trinity was simply a part of Risingh’s deception plan. The cannonballs at Fort Christina were the wrong size for the 14-pound cannons at Trinity. Risingh apparently did not understand that. This deception involved the concept of ‘out of sight-out of mind”.

There is no doubt that Risingh was actively working on his deception/misdirection plan long before he surrendered because he had negotiated the article allowing him to hold his Court Martial hearings several days before he surrendered. Stuyvesant blocked part of Risingh’s plan in that he only allowed Risingh to hold the hearing. Risingh could not reach any verdicts or punish (execute) anyone as a result of the hearing.

In addition Risingh negotiated an entire secret article in the surrender treaty. This secret article appears only in the Dutch copy of the treaty and does not appear in the Swedish copy. Risingh “sold” Fort Christina’s nine bronze cannons to Stuyvesant in a thinly disguised, impossible to pay back on time, loan scheme. Actually Risingh never mentioned the “loan” when he returned to Sweden. He and the bookkeeper were put ashore in northern England and they traveled overland to London to cash the draft Stuyvesant gave Risingh. That draft is estimated to be worth about a million dollars in today’s currency. The loan was not recorded in either New Sweden or Sweden at all and the money never appears in Sweden. After collecting the money in London Risingh and the bookkeeper went on to Amsterdam and parted there. The bookkeeper went directly to Sweden and fades out of sight. Risingh went to Germany to give a report of the lost of the Colony to the King.

The “loan” was duly foreclosed on for non-payment and the nine Fort Christina bronze cannons were shipped to Fort Amsterdam one day after the due date. They had already been removed from the Fort and were sitting on the dock awaiting shipment. Rev. Eric Björk was astonished to find Swedish cannons from Fort Christina in New York during his visit in 1703. The English considered them prizes of war when they captured New York from the Dutch in 1664.

After he surrender the Colony, Risingh, other officials and some soldiers, a total of about 37 men, were taken back to Europe on Dutch ships and at Dutch expense. Risingh had Peter Lindeström completely rewrite his official Journal during the voyage home across the Atlantic. He also rewrote the Court Martial Hearing record. The altered copies Lindeström created for him all survived the voyage across the ocean without problem but the original documents, on the same ship, did not survive the voyage.

Risingh died, seemingly in poverty, at Stockholm seventeen years later in 1672.

This is not a complete recounting of all of Risingh’s blunders and deceptions. Most of Governor Risingh's cover-ups and deceptions have worked for him for more than 350 years. They seem to be mostly still working for him. Some parts of his plans, however, went badly astray. Thanks to Swen Skute not firing at the Dutch ships nearly everyone serving at Fort Trinity during the Dutch invasion, including Johan Andersson Stålkofta, survived. Stuyvesant’s policy allowing all of Risingh’s intended victims to stay in New Sweden under Dutch rule as Freemen meant that none of the officers were compelled to return to Sweden to take the blame for Risingh’s blunders. That forced Risingh to play the roll of victim for the rest of his life. He was also forced to pretend to be very poor when he was immensely wealthy from his illicit cannon sale. He could never enjoy the luxuries his stolen money could provide for him.

Strange as it may sound had Governor Rising followed his orders and the 1655 invasion by the Dutch avoided then when the English and Dutch clashed nine years later the English probably would have avoided any confrontation with New Sweden. England and Sweden were at peace with each other. One of our states today may have been based on the territory of the former New Sweden Colony.

 

RISINGH’S ANGER AT CAPTAIN SVEN SKUTE
© 2012   All rights Reserved  -   Larry Spencer Stallcup


From the moment the ship Eagle arrived and anchored off Fort Elfsborg in New Sweden Captain Sven Skute and Governor Risingh were at loggerheads. Skute was designated to be the military commander but Risingh immediately usurped all military command authority from him. To make the situation worse Risingh ignored all advice from both Sven Skute and the Eagle’s Captain from that moment onward. He seemed determined to do the opposite of what Skute recommended. Risingh immediately leaped into a Dutch trap from which there was no escape. Risingh’s big leap caused the loss of the entire New Sweden Colony to the Dutch his first day in the Colony.

Stuyvesant soon sent a letter to Risingh telling him the Dutch were coming to take over all of New Sweden in response to his, Governor Risingh’s, military attack and capture of the Dutch Fort Cassimir. Rising sent a letter back to Stuyvesant saying that it was agreeable to him if the Dutch killed everyone south of the Christina River if he, Stuyvesant, would stop the invasion at that point and leave him and his "estate" alone. Stuyvesant did not reply to this letter. From his silence Risingh apparently assumed that Stuyvesant agreed to his death proposal. Risingh apparently had the idea that if everyone at Trinity died then no one would be left alive who knew how badly he had blundered by disobeying his orders. That was one of the reasons Risingh was so upset about Skute not firing on the Dutch ships. Skute and everyone south of the Christina River stayed alive.

Skute and the Fort Trinity garrison were brought to Fort Christina to witness Risingh surrendering of the Colony. That was probably embarrassing for Risingh but worst was to come. Three days after the surrender Stuyvesant made everyone in New Sweden a Freeman and started handing out land patents. He offered to let Risingh stay on as Vice-Governor reporting to him. That offer destroyed Risingh’s entire plan for his own future. Risingh had all sort of perks in his contract including that he be furnish with an estate, he had selected Timber Island, and that a number of servants be provided for him to operate his estate. Risingh’s special free privileges suddenly vanished.

Risingh was furious at Skute. In his mind Sven Skute staying alive was the cause of the loss of his “estate”, his job as an independent governor and for the loss of all of his special privileges. Even if Risingh stayed on in New Sweden as Stuyvesant’s Vice-Governor he would have to pay the cost of running his estate and his servants out of his own income. The New Sweden Colony operated on the “books” as a “Company Store” non-cash type of system. That system had suddenly ended and the Dutch cash system had replaced it. Like everyone else Risingh had no cash income in New Sweden.

Skute destroyed Risingh’s grand plans at every turn without even knowing it.
 

BRIEF HISTORY OF NEW SWEDEN IN AMERICA


JOHAN ANDERSSON från Strängnäs (John, the son of Andrew, from Strängnäs), the primogenitor of the entire Stalcop family, arrived alone in the Colony of New Sweden in 1641 as a young boy or lad about age 13. He had taken a job as a farm hand to work on the tobacco plantation the Colony intended to be located at Upland (now Chester, PA).  By age 19 he gave up farming and became a soldier. He soon acquired a nickname, or early form of soldier’s name, Stålkofta, the Steelcoat, to separate him from other men named Johan Andersson.

The following is provided to give some background to the origin of the Stalcop Family in America.



THE HAZARDS OF 17TH CENTURY TRAVEL
THE FATE OF THE CAT

The neighbor of Johan Andersson Stålkofta, TIMEN STIDDEM of Gothenburg, Sweden, a barber-surgeon for the New Sweden Colony and his family were aboard the ship “CAT”. Stiddem’s first wife and children all perished in the incident. 

The following is quoted from the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Volume 8, p. 28-32.
      ____________________________________________________________

"On the 24th of March, 1649, Queen Christina issued orders to the College of the Admiralty to "make ready and equip" the ship Kalmar Nyckel, then lying at Gottenburg, consigned to the West India Company for the removal of "the cargo, which the Company had stored there." She was to be supplied with the necessary crew, and twenty pieces of cannon, and furnished with provisions for ten months, deducting the amount which the Company might claim from the Admiralty, and was to start upon her voyage as soon as possible. Finding she could not be prepared in time, the College of the Admiralty ordered, April 13, the equipment of another vessel called Katlan (the Cat), on which embarked the eighth expedition to New Sweden. The cargo consisted principally of materials of war and implements of every sort, from the inventory of which we may cite " two six-pounder brass cannon, two three-pounder, twelve six-pounder, and two four-pounder iron cannon, powder, lead, grenades, muskets, pistols," etc., besides rope and tackle, and everything needed for the outfit of a ship, with a considerable supply of food. Commandant Hans Amundsson was appointed head of the expedition, and Cornelius Lucifer captain of the vessel. The former was accompanied by his family. Among the emigrants (who numbered seventy persons), we may name, particularly, the preacher Matthias Nertunius (Rosenbechius?) and the bookkeeper Joachim Lycke; some criminals, also, appear to have been included. Seeing that no fewer than three hundred Finns applied to the government this year for permission to go to New Sweden, there was probably no lack of colonists on this occasion.

After a long delay at Gottenburg, the ship set sail on the 3d of July. At first the voyage was prosperous, and on the 20th of August she touched at the island of Antigua in the West Indies to take in water. Not obtaining enough here, she steered next day to St. Christopher's, where the emigrants were received with great kindness by the Governor, and supplied with water and provisions. She procured salt at the island of St. Martin, and the following day coasted about some others in that unfamiliar sea, the captain, "ex mala prcESumtione," says the narrator, "ac incredibili obstinacia" bearing full sail, in spite of admonitions of the Commandant and other companions to lie to. Early on the morning of the 26th she struck a rock, two miles from an island fourteen miles distant from Porto Rico; but, after she had been lightened of ballast, water, etc., she was brought to shore, fortunately, without loss of life. The victuals and a great part of the stores of the ship were carried to the beach, and, after some repairs, she was ready to continue her journey. The shipwrecked mariners, needing water, besought assistance of the inhabitants, who happened to be Spaniards, and who sent them water, indeed, but, observing their desperate situation, plundered them of what they had carried ashore, and took them on boats, as prisoners, to Porto Rico, where Amundsson, who meanwhile had recovered his sword, was brought before the Governor, Don Fernando de la Riva. The latter, after questioning him as to his intentions, from whence he came, and whither he was going, made excuses for the violence towards his company, saying, this would not have occurred, had he been present. Amundsson considered they would have to answer for behaving as they had to friendly strangers. In the mean time the emigrants were liberated, and permitted to leave the place as they found opportunity; but, being robbed of their ship and private property, they had to work to support themselves, or beg for sustenance. The Commandant was furnished by the Governor with a small monthly allowance to maintain himself and family.

Amundsson communicated these facts to his superiors in Sweden; but, some time necessarily elapsing before the news could be received and aid arrive, his company were grievously afflicted. Being forbidden to celebrate their form of religious worship, many through sickness and necessity, others by promises and force, and some through matrimonial alliances were converted to the Catholic faith, by which means their lot was somewhat improved. The Governor himself procured the baptism of one of the Swedish women, and took her to live with him. Soon after he left the island. Others of the shipwrecked people eagerly sought means to get away, and especially the crew of Kattan, who time and again appealed to La Riva to send them home. Lest their arrival in Sweden, in their forlorn plight, might discredit the colonial enterprise of the West India Company, the Swedish Commandant persuaded them to dispatch Joachim Lycke (who was accompanied by the preacher Nertunins), and wait a year for orders or assistance. This they agreed to, therefore, but, the year expiring without news, many finally left the island, one by one, getting home in various ways.

Many, however, remained behind. Presently arrived a new Spanish governor for Porto Rico, Don Diego de la Vera, who, not hearing of any Swedish ship destined to remove the strangers, whom he either would not or could not maintain or help, especially without orders on the subject from his government, determined that all should leave the island. In expectation of this the Swedes assembled to sail with a General Francisco Visante. Nevertheless, directly contrary to promise and agreement, only Amundsson and his family were permitted to accompany the officer. The former besought that he might stay upon the island, if his people might not go with him, but was compelled, by menaces, to remain upon the ship. His children were forcibly detained by the people left upon the beach, and had to be seized by Spanish Boldiers and conveyed on board the vessel, which afterwards (probably April 13,1651) set sail for Spain, where they arrived the following July. From Cadiz Amundsson wrote a letter to the Swedish agent at Amsterdam, Peter Trotzig, to be forwarded to Sweden, but this communication never reached its destination. Notwithstanding, he succeeded in getting to that city, in a destitute condition, and, procuring the needful documents, wrote to the Swedish Ambassador, Matthias Palbitzsky, at Madrid, desiring him to speak to the Spanish government, and obtain help for the distressed Swedes at Porto Rico.

After the departure of Amundsson his people petitioned the Governor for aid to leave the island, and were told they could purchase a little "bark," that came there a few days before, and was taken as a prize. This they did, then, and, La Vera furnishing them with provisions, quitted Porto Rico, May 1, 1651, numbering no more than eighteen souls. Their design was to get to New Sweden, if possible, but the very next day, off Santa Cruz (St. Croix), they were captured by a frigate, which compelled them to accompany her to that island, then in the possession of France. The Governor met them with some soldiers on the beach, and, immediately taking them into custody, robbed them of their money and what other valuables he could discover. The women having sewed some of these in their clothes, the Governor, by some means, finding this out, on their refusal to give them up, "had them taken one by one, and, screwing their fingers with pistol-locks until the nails came off," forced them to yield what was concealed, and even went further with his tortures in the hope of getting more. The rest were heavily laden with iron fetters and ill-treated, and two of them were killed in a most horrible manner. Finally, they were distributed in various quarters of the island, to work, being prohibited to have intercourse with one another under penalty of death. In the course of a few weeks nearly all succumbed to misery and disease. Meanwhile, a Dutch captain, who was sailing in these waters, happened to hear of their misfortunes, and contrived to send a boat from St. Christopher's, to bring the wretched people away. At that time there were only five alive, the mate, Johan Jonsson Ruth, two women, and two children, of whom all but the first-named person died, either on the voyage or immediately after their arrival at that island. Ruth, the sole survivor, was brought by the captain spoken of to Holland, where he found opportunity to send a letter to Sweden, reciting the events we have narrated.

This expedition, therefore, accomplished nothing for the Swedish colony, and the report of its ill fate, which reached the settlers in the summer of 1650, could not but have depressed their spirits, and increased the difficulty of Governor Printz's situation."
 

 


OF MONEY AND PAY SYSTEMS

When he was hired in 1640 to go to New Sweden his starting salary was set at 10 R.D. (Riksdalers per year) and he was advanced 10 dalers copper money just prior to sailing. This advancement of pay, probably in hard currency, was not typical. Only a relatively few of the colonists to receive a salary advancement. Most received nothing at all. At the time one Riksdaler was worth about two and a half dalers meaning that his annual starting salary was 25 dalars. His hefty 40 percent advancement on his first year salary was probably paid so that he could buy supplies for his journey and things that were not likely to be available in New Sweden.

It is nearly impossible to determine the equivalent value of what he was paid in terms of today’s money. Suffice it to say that as a very young, about age 13, farm laborer it probably was equal to a minimum wage. For comparison the pay of the priest serving the colony was set at 10 dalars per month or twelve times his rate of pay.

Johan Andersson probably received the 10 dalers copper money advancement in the form of copper coins called an Öre. See the photo on the PICTURES page. In general at the time thirty-two of the smaller öre coins made up one daler. These 10 dalers, or 320 Öre, paid and likely spent in Sweden, was the only Swedish money Stålkofta was ever paid. This strange fact became highly significant years later when New Sweden was surrendered to the Dutch.

In July of 2004 Hans Ling of Uppsala, Sweden kindly provided this explanation.

“Öre
is a Viking pronunciation of the Latin word “or”. It was a measure of gold. Until the meter system was introduced it was often used to tell the size of land. A farm could consist of, for instance, an amount of land valued at 10 Öre. In the 1500s the value of a Öre had decreased so that it was possible to make coins with the value of one Öre. As the devaluation continued other coins were introduced such as the mark and daler. In the 1700s it was decided that the Swedish coins should only be the riksdaler (national daler) and the skilling (change). One riksdaler was 48 skilling. In the beginning of the 1800s the riksdaler was renamed to krona (crown) and the skilling replaced by a new öre. One krona is 100 Öre. Today (mid-2004) one Öre is of so little value that the smallest coin is 50 Öre”.

The operating primus of the New Sweden Colony was the classic “Company Store” model. Everyone who went to the colony was expected to deal only with the Company. The colonists were forbidden to privately trade with the natives, the Dutch or the English. Needless to say there was a lot of backdoor trading going on anyway. The Company owned everything. The use of everything; land, tools, farm animals, etc., was on a rental basis and could only be rented from the company.

No money was sent over to pay wages and salaries. To receive pay each person had first to return to Sweden and then to petition the company for his back pay. Of course, anything purchased or rented from the Company Store, either aboard ship coming or going, or while in New Sweden, was carefully recorded and deducted from any pay earned. Settlement often was a long delayed process, years in some instances, as the company waited until the books were returned from New Sweden.

This currency system, or total lack of, was based upon the assumption that all jobs in New Sweden were temporary. That is, that everyone, including the settlers were simply Company employees and all would eventually return to Sweden. It was not considered that anyone would make the colony into a permanent home.

Depending on which bookkeeper was making the record entries in the company books were kept either in terms of Dutch or Swedish money. Dutch bookkeepers translated everything into terms of Dutch guilders. Later, back in Sweden, the accounts were re-translated back into Swedish currency. Dutch guilders were the only hard currency actually in circulation in the New Sweden area. For trade there seems to have been at least three prevalent mediums of exchange, Dutch guilders, sewant and beaver pelts. Some years later tobacco and grain was added to the list. Sewant is more widely known as wampum or Indian money. It was strings of small, white cylindrical beads. The Printz 1646 to 1653 account books show his bookkeeper was Swedish and the amounts are given in Swedish riksdaler terms. This record begins when Stålkofta became a soldier and ends when Printz returned to Sweden.

At the Dutch invasion Stålkofta had long since left farm work and had become a soldier. He had advanced rapidly in rank to that of Gunnery Sergeant. He had a similar rapid advancement in pay up to a salary of 144 Riksdalers per year.

Since Johan Andersson Stålkofta, like most, elected to remain in America under Dutch rule and never returned to Sweden it follows that he never received any hard currency pay for his fourteen years of service. The only exception was the 10 dalers he was advanced in Sweden, and surely spent in Sweden, just before he went aboard ship to begin his journey to the New World. Being a young boy this advanced money may have been the only Swedish money he ever held in his hands.

It follows that when he returned to Fort Christina in 1655 at the surrender he was again in a very poor financial condition. His assigned house and his garden at Bee Island, actually both owned by the Company, was reported by Governor Risingh both badly damaged if not completely destroyed. His employment as a Swedish soldier had just come to an abrupt end. The entire Company Store purchase/charge system no longer existed. Governor Risingh threats to hold all the officers serving at Fort Trinity responsible for the loss of the entire colony made it unsafe for him to return to Sweden to petition for his pay.

He must have realized that he would never receive any of his back pay. Stålkofta, and everyone else, were suddenly flat broke and faced with having to do business on a cash basis in the Dutch currency system. What was he to do?

Well, from the wreckage of his house he managed to salvage several pieces of furniture, a table and a wardrobe. He quickly sold them, and perhaps other items, to a Dutch sergeant to raise immediate cash. Maybe some of the others colonists facing the same dilemma did the same. These two pieces of furniture were soon to be in the center of an argument between the Dutch sergeant and the new Dutch Vice-Governor which is why we know about the sale.

Governor Risingh also had a money problem. He had no money in his pocket for his return to Sweden. Having lost the entire colony he surely knew he would have a difficult time trying to collect his pay. He did not have a Swedish ship to use on the return trip but that was not a worry. By treaty arrangement the Dutch paid all travel expenses for everyone returning to Sweden, including the Governor, and the trip was made on a Dutch ship. Risingh could not take with him any of the company property, the supplies on hand, or any of the goods he had available for trading with the Indians. He held a “Going Out of Business” sale to get rid of the goods and stores of the colony.

Johan Andersson Stålkofta was one of the largest purchasers of these goods during the sale. Stålkofta surely realized that if he could never receive his back pay then he would never actually have to pay for any of the items he purchased. They were simply being charged to his pay account that would never be settled. One of the items he purchased was the entire stock of shoes, forty plus pairs. One could speculate Stålkofta probably immediately resold most of these goods, probably to Dutch soldiers, to raise money.

The ‘Going Out of Business Sale’ idea did not work out well for Risingh because it did not produce a single öre of cash for him. Risingh then did something no one else in New Sweden could do. He wrote a secret article, No. 10, into the surrender treaty. He took out a loan from the Dutch by putting up the nine cannons from Fort Christina as collateral. The loan amount, 300 Pounds Flemish, was to be repaid within six-months. This was an impossible condition because no one could travel to Sweden and return to New Sweden with money within the six months. The loan could have been repaid in Amsterdam but this was not done and even if it were paid in Amsterdam notice of the payment could not reach Stuyvesant before the due date. Stuyvesant dutifully foreclosed on the loan and moved the Fort Christina cannons to New Amsterdam about seven months after the surrender.

An interesting side of this story is that apparently Risingh was very successful in keeping the entire article, and the loan money, very secret in Sweden. It apparently was not among the documents he arrived home in Sweden with when he returned. In accordance with the terms in the Secret Article Risingh and his bookkeeper were put ashore in England and the two traveled together overland from where they landed to London. This apparently was to exchange the draft Stuyvesant had given him for the 300 Pounds Flemish. From London the two men traveled to Amsterdam. From there Risingh went to northern Europe to make his report on the loss of New Sweden to the King. The bookkeeper went directly to Sweden.

So far no mention in Sweden has been found of the document containing the Secret Article (See Gehring, NYHM 18:19), or any record of anything relating to Risingh mortgaging the weapons of Fort Christina. Likewise there is no record of what Risingh did with the money he collected except that it appears he clearly did not turn it over to the Company.

It is difficult to accurately determine the present day value of the loan money Risingh collected in London but one estimate put the amount at approximately $860,000.00. The amount he split with the bookkeeper is unknown.

While the available records do not directly address the currency problem the New Sweden settlers faced after the surrender it is clear they adapted quickly and thrived in the Dutch monetary system. Having title to their own property and being able to trade directly with the Indians and with English and Dutch traders surely made life easier for them. By the time the 1693 Census was conducted, less than forty years later, the population of New Sweden had nearly tripled.

 


PATRONYMIC NAMING SYSTEM

The patronymic naming system - the name of the father - was used in all of Scandinavia and most of northern Europe. The system added sen, son, datter, dotter, or dottir to the name of the father. It formed a patronymic name. A person named Johan Andersson was literally "John, the son of Anders (Andrew)." Christina Carlsdotter was literally, "Christina, the daughter of Carl (Charles)." Because of this system there could be many people living in the same place at the same time with the same name who were completely unrelated to each other. Seven different Johan Anderson’s have been identified as being associated with the New Sweden Colony. There were two more who were Dutch. The sons of all of them would be “Johansson’s” but would be related to only their siblings but not to the sons of the other men.

The patronymic naming system is very different from what we're used to and Americans are prone to forcing them into being English style surnames. The system was the best for the times and for the culture. Because of the short life expectancy it was rare that three generations in a family were living at the same time. Most given names were chosen to honor either a Biblical figure or an older member of the family hence lots of names were repeated generations after generation.

Scandinavian females did not assume the name of their husband when they married. They carried their maiden name for life. If you find an Olof Andersson and a Christina Andersdotter married to each other she is not "Mrs. Olof Andersson" in the traditional American sense. The record simply means that Olof was the son of an "Anders", and Christina was the daughter of an "Anders" and they were unrelated before their marriage.

Record keepers recorded what their ears heard and they spelled what they heard the way they thought it should be spelled in their own language. In the case of New Sweden three different languages, Swedish, Dutch and English, were heard and spelled each in its own way. A Dutchman trying to use the English language wrote out Johan Anderson Stalcop’s Will. The spelling of Swedish patronymic and the phrasing he used has a decided Dutch influence.


The Swedes followed the laws of the government in control so after William Penn took over the naming system was ordered changed. The English surname system came into use among the New Sweden settler families after about 1682. A person could chose a surname to be known by out of thin air, their father's nickname, patronymic or perhaps a trade mentor's name. Rarely was it a place name. Some families split with some family members taking one surname and others taking a different surname.

In Sweden the patronymic system gave way to surnames about 1880.

 


BUSTED MYTHS

Every family has myths made up about their past and we are not an exception. More than a usual number seems to be associated with our origins so this is presented to shatter some of them. They serve only to waste a lot of valuable research time and miss-lead those not inclined to verify such stories. Sorry if I take away some of your favorite colorful stories but I think the true origins are far more interesting than these made-up and erroneous myths.
 

THE SEACOOK MYTH

In 1846 historian Benjamin Farris published his History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware. In it he included a story about the origin of the Stalcop family name. Farris said that the founder of the Stalcop family was a Dutchman who worked for his passage to the new world as a cook aboard a Dutch ship. He wore a woolen cap that he often used as a towel. The cap was supposed to have been so saturated with grease that it took on the look of polished steel. The greasy woolen cap made the seacook the butt of jokes with the Dutch sailors. They supposedly called the seacook 'Staelkappe', meaning ‘steel head’ or ‘steel cap’.

Farris' Dutch seacook story is colorful and seems logical which probably accounts for its ready acceptance. This story has spread far and wide all across the country. Lawrence Dillon (LD) Stallcup repeated it in his 1937 outline of the family only changing the seacook to a Swede aboard a Swedish ship. The story is still widely quoted to this day.

The Dutch seacook/greasy cap story is completely false! Farris simply made it up in 1846. It has no basis in fact.

The first Stalcop was not Dutch. He did not arrive in America aboard a Dutch ship and he was   not a seacook. The Dutch seacook story does not relate in any manner to the origin of the Stalcop family or the family surname.  Farris' complete fabrication is supported only by his own imagination. Farris' false story has been repeated and passed on, and even worse, it has been believed by entire generations of Stalcops. Exactly a century after Farris fabricated his seacook story Harry G. Staulcup completely demolished it in his 1946 thesis for his Masters Degree from the University of Delaware. This thesis, Notes on the Early Stalcop Family, has not received wide distribution, at least not nearly wide enough to stop the spread of the false Dutch seacook/greasy cap story.

 

PARENTS OF JOHAN ANDERSSON

In the early twentieth century some family researchers found a couple in the area, Anders Andersson the Finn, and his wife Christina Coolbrant, who had a son named John Andersson alias Cock (cook). In an effort to force this younger John Andersson into becoming the founder of the Stalcop family and to fit into the false Dutch sea cook story they changed Anders Andersson into a Dutch spelling, Andres Andriessen, and invented birthdates for the couple that are at least 30 years too early. Anders Andersson the Finn, and his wife Christina Coolbrant, are not, and never have been, related in any way to the Stalcop family. Pietter Stallcop sued Anders Andersson and won his case. The court judgment was settled by a transfer of 390 acres of land from Anders to Pietter.

 

THE GOLD-LACED UNIFORM

The story about Johan Andersson Stålkofta wearing a gold-laced uniform about town to impress the ladies is a complete and very modern invention. This story dates back only to 1940. It was published in a book called THE DELAWARE by Henry Emerson Wildes.

“Johan Anderssen, a gunner nicknamed Stalkofta, or the Steelcoat, and John Coleman, wirepuller from behind the scenes, were members of the inner circle. Each had secret motives. Just as Armegot (Armegot Printz, daughter of Governor Johan Printz) wished to recover Big Belly's (Johan Printz) brewery and to regain his pleasure yacht, so Anderssen and Coleman, none too successful farmers, coveted the estates of Englishmen. The Steelcoat, it was whispered, looked lecherously at lovely ladies and dallied with the thought that he could have a harem. His trim, gold-laced uniform, especially designed to set off his best features and to divert attention from a certain physical peculiarity, was always glittering where the women of the colony were wont to congregate. It was, in fact, his longing for the wives of other men that first caused his fellows to band together for the overthrow of Jacobsen's intrigue."

Johan Andersson Stålkofta never wore any sort of uniform, military or otherwise. None of  the Swedish soldiers in his era wore a uniform any sort. Arm scarves of distinctive colors were used to identify troops.

There are a large number of errors in Wildes invention. It was Hendrick Coleman, not John Coleman, involved. The phrase, 'wirepuller' probably would not have been used at the time since metal wire was nearly unknown in the colony. It is hard to imagine that Armegot Printz could have the 'secret motives' ascribed to her. Governor Printz's account books are extant. There is no mention of a brewery lost by her father and commercial breweries did not exist in the colony at the time. Governor Printz did not own a pleasure yacht. Such things did not exist in the colony.

The only place in the Colony where ladies ever gathered was at weddings, funerals and for Church services. The Church had wardens to make sure everyone behaved themselves inside and outside. Stålkofta's son John was a warden. The wardens were the community police force and had arrest powers. 


Swedish Army Museum diorama of soldiers of the period getting ready to go into battle.
Not a uniform in sight. Only the pike men have helmets.
 



HERALDRY MYTH SHATTERED
No Coat of Arms - No Family Crest - No Meaning

 

From time to time commercial companies appear and use very carefully crafted generic stories about a family coat of arms or a family crest. They say, for a price, they will tell you the origin (or history) of your family and the meaning of your family name and will supply you with the family Coat of Arms and Family Crest. Their way out of such a grossly inaccuracy come-on is that they never actually claim that anything they tell you is true. They only say that it ‘may’ be the story. They never state that anything they say is actually true.

They are in the business of selling brick-a-brac and their sales gimmick is they will apply a fictitious Family Crest or fictitious Coat of Arms to just about anything if you are will to pay their price for their brick-a-brac.

As it states on the Group Lineages Page the Stalcop family, and all associated spellings, did not originate in a foreign country. The family surname was created in America and has never existed anywhere outside of America. There is never been any heraldry of any sort associated with the family. There is no background of royalty, no coat of arms, no family crest. None of that has ever existed in the Stalcop family.

The written name “Stalcop” has no meaning in English or any other language. Because of how the family surname was derived it is merely a transliteration, or approximation, of the spelling of the sounds of the name as it passed through several other languages into Colonial English and then on into American English. The only place it has any meaning is in the parent language as it existed, not today, but over three and a half centuries ago in early colonial days.

Simply stated the Stalcop Family is All AMERICAN.
 

 

THE DAUGHTER THAT NEVER WAS
Larry S. Stallcup


Christina Stalcop, supposedly a daughter of the first family and married to William Cobb of Philadelphia, never existed. Dr. Peter Craig and I, Historian of the Swedish Colonial Society, had many long discussions about her that spanned years until I finally convinced him that she did not exist.

First of all there simply was not a birth slot in Johan Andersson family for this mythical daughter to be born. Either that or she had to be a twin. Twins are very rare in the Stalcop family. Before I managed to convince Dr. Craig that Cobb’s wife was not a Stalcop he had incorrectly assigned the name of Christina Stalcop as the wife of William Cobb to the Gloria Die charter member list and published it in two books and a newletter article.*

William Cobb attended a wedding at Timen Stidham’s home and he later gave a court deposition about an argument involving Christina Carlsdotter that took place at the wedding. The argument was about a bonnet stolen from Christina Carlsdotter. From William Cobb’s deposition Dr. Craig concluded that William Cobb, not Stidham, was the groom and was marrying the mythical Stalcop daughter in the Stidham home because her parents had disowned her. Dr Craig believed William Cobb to be an Englishman and not Lutheran but he turned out to be Lutheran and a charter member of the Gloria Dei Lutheran Church. Dr Craig assigned the name Christina to his mythical wife simply because there was no other daughter named Christina in Johan Andersson Stalcop's family.

Later court documents proved that the wedding William Cobb attended was Timen Stidham's third wedding, not William Cobb's wedding. There were, in fact, two weddings involved in the stolen bonnet argument separated in time by about six months. The first wedding, and argument, was in the Stalcop household and the second was in the Stidham househod. The court records finally convinced Peter he had it wrong but by then it was too late. The books and articles had already been published. This is one of the very few times Dr. Craig was wrong about anything at all to do with the New Sweden settlers.

It is not know whom William Cobb married but it was not a daughter of Johan Andersson Stalcop and Christina Carlsdotter. Cobb’swife may have been named Christina, at that time a very popular female name in the community, but she was not a member of the Stalcop family.
_______________________________________________________________
* The 1693 Census of the Swedes on the Delaware, Peter Stebbins Craig, SAG Publications, 1993

Swedish Colonial News, Volume 2, Number 1, Winter 2000, Charter Members of Gloria Dei Church, Peter Stebbins Craig.

Colonial Records of the Swedish Churches in Pennsylvania, Vol. One, The Log Churches at Tinicum Island and Wicaco, 1646-1696, Peter Stebbins Craig and Kim-Eric Williams. 2006

 

 


NOVEL DISCOVERY

Thanks to our cousin, Hans Ling, an exciting recent discovery has come to light. While it has not been all that far back in time, only about three quarters of a century, it was written a continent away and in a different language making it obscure in America. Please keep in mind that the following discussion concerns a Swedish language novel, a complete work of fiction. Some, but not all, of the characters are fictional. The real persons mentioned are doing fictional things. On the other hand the setting for the novel, the New Sweden Colony, is quite accurate. Johan Printz was Governor of the New Sweden Colony from February 15, 1643 to October 1653.

                             * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


The following report is from e-mail messages exchanged between Hans Ling and Larry Stallcup. A wonderful Christmas present for all Stalcops.
 

December 15, 2008
Dear Larry,

A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to both of you.  In 1932 Maths Holmström published a novel for children/teenagers with the title Lasse Stålkofta, berättelse från Nya Sverige (Lasse Stålkofta, a tale from New Sweden). The book is very rare. I have not been able to find it elsewhere that at The Royal Library in Stockholm, the Dioceses Library in Skara and the municipal library in Umeå. You may not borrow it from Stockholm and Skara, but I have today asked the municipal library here in Uppsala to order the book from Umeå.  Let us see what happens.

Hans (Ling of Uppsala, Sweden)

 

December 22, 2008
Dear Larry,

Now I have got the book Lasse Stålkofta – Berättelse från Nya Sverige I have not read it, and I doubt that I will ever do it. The story is about the young man Lasse Stålkofta who has come to New Sweden with his parents Anders Stålkofta and his wife. Her name is never told. She is just called “mother Stålkofta”. Some of the Swedes have hidden away from Printz around Schokill River and Printz has heard that they plan to conquer a ship and become pirates. He sends Lasse to spy at them and find out what is going on. After a lot of adventures among the bandits and the Indians Lasse finds a cave where Indians have been buried long ago and where he finds a box filled with gold coins. After still more adventures he can return to his parents as a rich man. He falls in love with Kristina Printz and together they go to Sweden to start a new life with all the money.

Obviously Maths Holmström has found it fun to write the book. He has also written long songs he says were used in New Sweden and also some poems connected to the text. And the characters talk in different dialects from the time. Also he seems to have studied New Sweden rather well and tries to give a correct historic surrounding to his story.

But the book has nothing [to do] with the real Stålkoftas. Holmström has just found the name and got fond of it. It modern Swedish the name sounds funny because stål/steel and kar/cardigan are two so very opposite things.

I attach illustrations from the book.

Hans (Ling of Uppsala, Sweden) 


The illustration on page 98 shows Governor Printz giving the spying assignment to Lasse. Governor Printz says: I have called you here because I wanted to have an important discussion with you.

Page 163 shows Lasse when he returns.  The caption says: When they discovered they were alone Kerstin threw her arms around Lasse Stålkofta's neck and kissed him.

 


Page 179.  Lasse returns to his parents home after his mission for the Governor.  The caption says “Lasses” shouts Mother Stålkofta and runs toward her son with outstretched arms.

 Page 191.  The caption says “Their (Mats Pipare & Lasses Stålkofta's) canoe was well hidden in a small creek by reeds and overhanging trees.”

 

December 28, 2008
Dear Larry,

I have now had a little closer look in the book about Lasse Stålkofta.  His father Anders has a very poor farm in Småland and heard about the possibilities to get a better life in New Sweden. He emigrated with his family on Kalmar Nyckel. One son died but his wife Barbara, son Lasse and daughter Gertrud who came over. At first Anders worked at a tobacco plantation at Christina, but after some time he got his own farm at New Upland. Lasse became friends with the Indians after having saved the life of White Falk, who was attacked by a bear.

Later he won a competition in wrestling between different tribes arranged by Johan Printz. He defeated the strongest Irokes (I do not know if that is the correct English name for the tribe) Hissing Snake and was then by his friends the Lanape given the name Strong Panther.  After a lot of adventures together with his friend Mats Pipare (piper) during his job to spy on the deserters and bandits he went back to Sweden on Gyllene Hajen. Standing on the deck hand in hand with Kerstin Printz he saw New Gothenburg disappear. Her eyes were wet by tears thinking of Mats Pipare who had been killed by Hissing Snake. That was the end of the book.

I have tried to find out something about the author Maths Holmström and been asking about him.  Perhaps when I can get some information I will let you know.

Hans (Ling of Uppsala, Sweden)

 

HOW MANY STALCOPS?

Back about 1980 when Earl E. Jones was wrapping up his monumental Stalcup Family record he estimated he had recorded 95 percent of all Stalcops. The missing 5 percent were almost all living in 1980 but did not provide information to be recorded. Earl documented slightly over 9600 of us at that moment meaning there probably were about ten thousand Stalcops by 1980. Twenty-eight years, or more than a full generation, has passed since Earl made his count. In the normal course of events population tends to double each generation. That means you have about twenty thousand, or more, cousins running around.   Consider this. All Stalcops everywhere today are grandchildren of Johan Anderson Stålkofta and Christina Carlsdaughter. Boy, that is a lot of grandkid’s names and birthdates to remember. And that is only the ones named Stalcop.

 

WHAT IS NORMAL?

As time passes and community circumstances evolve so do the standards of normal behavior. When Johan Anderson Stålkofta was born the normal life expectancy was about 48 years. Unless he was a member of the royalty or the clergy his formal education ended at about age twelve. At that age he was expected to leave home, find a job, and fend entirely for himself. That is probably why, all on his own, he took a job as a farm laborer in the New Sweden Colony across a vast ocean. Hard to imaging kids of today conforming to that standard of normal behavior.

Once he arrived in New Sweden he faced some other norms we today probably would find equally as far outside of the realm of possibility. Here are a few:

Men tended to marry first at about age 30 to 33 years old and have only one wife. Stålkofta was about age 29 or 30 when he married. Girls tended to marry first at age 14 to 16, most outlived their first two husbands and died at about the same time as their third husband died.

Christina Carlsdaughter is listed as a child on the ship’s passenger list during the voyage to New Sweden but married within a few months of arrival. Half a century later Rev. Björk was 33 when he married Christina Stalcop. She was 14 when he proposed and 16 when they married in 1702. Christina underwent two years of intense education before the marriage to prepare her to enter the social status of the clergy. The clergy was second only in status to Royalty.

Wives did not inherit anything from their husbands. Her children could literally throw her out of the house if they wished as soon as their father died. A husband could, however, provide for his wife until her death or until she remarried if he wished. He had to write such provisions into his Will. Unmarried daughters were usually provided for in their father’s Will. Married daughters, on the other hand, were considered the responsibility of their husband so were often not mentioned in their father’s Will. Stålkofta did not mention his eldest daughter by name in his Will but did leave property in her husband’s, Lylof Stiddem, name.

All too often family researcher of today try to interpret past events using current norms. Always a grave mistake.



TRAGIC STALCOPS
 

So far only two serious criminals are known in the Stalcop family. Both paid the ultimate price for their crimes. There have been lots of others that committed lesser crimes of one sort or another but for the most part the crimes were not of a violent nature.

 

EDWARD STALCOP
 

In 1803 Edward Stalcop came home and found his wife in bed with his cousin, Asa Mounts. He let his anger overcome his good judgment and used his rifle to shoot and killed Asa Mounts. About fifteen months later he was hung for murder in Chillicothe, Ohio. Edward Stalcop was the first person executed in Ohio. 

It is believed his wife remarried about one week after Edward died. Edward’s children later moved to Wisconsin and on the way they changed ancestry. They magically became Germans fresh off the boat. Apparently once they arrived in Wisconsin it made no difference that none of them could speak German. All could speak English and that was a more important skill in the community.


 

A GRIM PLACE FOR A WEDDING
Not all weddings are preformed in glorious settings. This Stalcop wedding was reported in the Baltimore Sun
newspaper in 1897.

LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT

Gertrude Stalcup. Who Escaped from the House of Refuge, Secures Final Release by Marriage


Gertrude Stalcup, who, in company with Olivia Granruth, escaped from the Female House of Refuge January 6, was married to Edward Abt Saturday Night at the institution by Rev. Richard Schmidt, pastor of Peace German Lutheran Church, on Gough street, near Washington street. She was returned to the institution early last week from the eastern police district.

Her companion, Olivia Granruth, was married before being recaptured to Wm. Wyatt, captain of an oyster boat, and is now living with him.

The marriage of Gertrude Stalcup to Mr. Abt was brought about by Attorney William P. Noonan, who was engaged by Mr. Abt to get his sweetheart out of the institution for that purpose. Mr. Noonan secured the license and, in company with the groom and the minister, went to the institution. Superintendent Bibb readily consented to the ceremony being preformed after he was satisfied that the groom was a suitable person for the girl to marry.

After the ceremony Mr. and Mrs. Abt went to the home of the groom, 329 Eastern Avenue, where they will in future reside. Abt is a driver for a coal and wood firm and bears a good reputation. He did not know the girl until she went to the house, where he was boarding after she had escaped from the House of Refuge, and he states that he immediately fell in love with her.


 

IN THE WRONG PLACE
Mountain Meadows, Utah 1857


Charles Stallcup (1832-1857) - Married to Winnie Wood and living in Marion County, Arkansas. Father of two young children, Rachel and James. Mother and children stayed at home when Charles Stallcup set out on a journey to California with brother-in-laws William and Solomon Wood. The three men were thought to have been hired to help care for the large cattle herd that was accompanying a wagon train. Their plans were to check out the prospects in California.

William Edward Wood (1831-1857) - Born in Arkansas to George Washington Wood and Nancy Jane Coker, Wood was married to Manerva Jane Hudson about 1850. The couple had one small child and Manerva Jane was pregnant with their second child. Solomon R. Wood (1937-1857) was the younger brother of William Edward Wood, and brother-in-law of Charles Stallcup. He was not married.

All three men died at Mountain Meadows, Utah in September, 1857. They appear to have simply been in the wrong place.

The so-called Mountain Meadows massacre has been the subject of 150 years of spin doctoring and cover-ups. Nearly a dozen years passed before any sort of inquiry was undertaken. The reports are nearly all hearsay and speculation. It is impossible to know what may have actually happened.

Mormons had undergone years of intense persecution. Faithful Mormons had moved west to Utah to escape that persecution. For a decade the Utah Territory existed as a theocracy led by Brigham Young and was located outside of the boundaries of the United States. Young established settlements along the California Trail and Old Spanish Trail. Mormon leaders had been mustering militia throughout Utah Territory to defend themselves against raids and arracks. In 1857 the United States Army was to be sent into Utah to establish US authority. The Army let it be known, true or not, that it was to be a full-scale hostile invasion and military attack on the Mormon population. From July to September 1857 Mormons prepared. The people were required to stockpile grain and were enjoined against selling food and grain to wagon trains. Brigham Young also sought to enlist the help of Indian tribes in fighting the "Americans".

In early 1857 a group of emigrants from northwestern Arkansas started toward California. They were soon called the Fancher party after their leader. They went through Salt Lake City but were not sold any food or grain. The wagon train had been joined by a group who called themselves "Missouri Wildcats," whom reportedly taunted, vandalized and "caused trouble" for Mormons and Native Americans all along the route. The Fancher train was alleged to have poisoned a spring near Corn Creek, Utah.

Some accounts say they were taunting Mormons saying they had the gun that "shot the guts out of Old Joe Smith" (the founder of the Mormon Church). A few months earlier, popular Mormon leader Parley Pratt was murdered in Arkansas and authorities refused to charge the killer. Stories of Pratt's murder had begun to arrive in Utah. The Fancher party continued to Mountain Meadow, a widely known stop over, where they found water and fresh grazing for their livestock.

Some accounts say the Fancher party decided to raid the nearby Mormon farms and settlements for fun. Another account says the wagon train was then attacked and besieged by Paiute Indians. They are reported to have encircled and lowered their wagons, wheels chained together, along with digging shallow trenches and throwing dirt both below and into the wagons, to made a strong barrier. (This was not a spur of the moment defense. It would have taken many hours to accomplish. It may indicate the Fancher party was expecting retaliation from an attack they had made.)

Supposedly on September 11, 1857, two Mormon militiamen approached the Fancher party wagons with a white flag and were followed by Indian agent and militia officer John D. Lee. Lee is reported to have told the emigrants that he had negotiated a truce with the Paiutes whereby they could be escorted safely the 36 miles to Cedar City under Mormon protection in exchange for turning all of their livestock and supplies over to the Paiutes. Accepting this, the emigrants were led out of their fortification (It is difficult to believe the wagon train emigrants would suddenly give up their weapons and everything they owned and just walk out among their attackers on the word of someone they had never seen before.) The report says a signal was given and the Mormon militiamen escorts turned and executed the male members of the Fancher party standing by their side. (This is beyond belief. The Mormons are an exceedingly gentle people that live by the Bible. How they could suddenly find many cold-blooded murderers is very hard to believe.)

John D. Lee was the only person charged. It was said that he was charged only because someone had to be charged as part of the US Army’s coverup. After two trials he was finally found guilty. He was taken to Mountain Meadows and executed.

The Mountain Meadows event put an end to the attacks on Mormon people simply because they were Mormons. All the fun goes out of persecution if the persecuted fight back. Charles Stallcup and his Woods brothers-in-law were at the wrong place when an historic turning point was reached.



VIRGIL STALCUP

Virgil Stalcup was a Depression era robber who ran up a very long list of petty crimes before he was caught. He reportedly had sentences that totaled 254 years in jail if served consecutively. His cellmate, Clarence Brown, had amassed 66 years in sentences.

Brown's wife smuggled the gun into the jail but it was Virgil Stalcup that used it to shoot and killed the Dickens County, Texas sheriff, Oct 27, 1934. Brown and Stalcup then escaped from the jail, stole the sheriff's new Ford V8 car and drove out of the county. Later they stole another Ford car and ran the sheriff’s car into a river in an attempt to hide it. They soon had every police officer in Texas looking for them. It was the largest manhunt in Texas history. Brown and Stalcup split up and went separate ways but both were caught after about three weeks on the run.

Brown’s wife was sentenced to two years in jail for smuggling in the gun. In court the man who traded the gun to her described it as “a .45 single action thumb-buster”. It was a big, heavy revolver. Brown had another 99 years added on to his sentence. Virgil Stalcup was found guilty of first-degree murder and was sentenced to be executed. The sentence was appealed to the Texas Supreme Court and was upheld.

Virgil Stalcup died in the Texas electric chair, May 4, 1936, about nineteen months after he shot and killed the sheriff.

In 2000 the sheriff, W. B. "Bill" Arthur, had a memorial marker dedicated to his memory by the Dickens County Texas Historical Commission. He is the only peace officer ever killed in the line of duty in Dickens County, Texas.


 

Published: October 12, 2009 3:00 a.m.
                             Steuben stroke victim vanishes
                                 
Silver Alert out; he has diabetes but no insulin


Holly Abrams The Journal Gazette, 600 w. Main Street,
Fort Wayne, IN 46802


A Silver Alert was issued Sunday afternoon for a man who went missing from his family’s Steuben County lake home the same day. Meanwhile, his family said they have few answers as to why 48-year-old Stuart Stalcup went missing. Stalcup disappeared from his family’s home along Snow Lake in Fremont between 12 and 6 a.m. Sunday, authorities said.

Stalcup is 5-foot-8 and weighs 160 pounds. He has balding dark hair and green eyes. He was last seen wearing a plaid flannel shirt, blue jeans and a blue and yellow vest. He was last seen traveling on foot, according to Steuben County sheriff’s deputies. Stalcup, of Wichita, Kan., has been living in Fort Wayne with his parents since suffering from a stroke in December, said his father, Robert Stalcup. The family was staying at their lake home in Fremont this weekend, he said.

The last time they saw their son was at bedtime Saturday night, Robert Stalcup said. His son, who has severe diabetes, was scheduled to eat breakfast and take an insulin shot at 6:30 a.m. Sunday.

When Robert awoke, his son was missing from his bedroom. The family does not suspect any type of entry to the home – saying Stalcup left on his own accord. He does not have insulin with him, Robert Stalcup said. Robert Stalcup said the family does not know why he would leave or where he went.

“I don’t know for sure if he has identification on him,” he said, adding that “it would be a little difficult for him to convey where he lives. Stuart Stalcup, who had not been found as of 10 p.m. Sunday, has a speech impairment, his father said.

The Silver Alert system mirrors the current Amber Alert system for missing children. Activated in July, the Silver Alert covers adults with dementia who go missing – along with anyone else considered to be an endangered adult. That could be someone incapable of returning without assistance because of a mental illness, mental retardation or another physical or mental incapacity. High-risk missing people, those who require medical attention, are also covered under Silver Alerts.

Authorities have launched a mounted search and rescue and a K-9 search to try to find Stalcup. Anyone with information on Stalcup’s disappearance should call deputies at 260-665-3131.


Stuart Stalcup's body was found a week or so after the alert. I have never met them and was not aware anyone with the last name of STALCUP/Stalcop was in our area here in northeastern Indiana (the little village of Fremont is about 30 or so miles from where I live). This area is about 10 to 15 or so miles from both Ohio and Michigan and is the far north east corner of Indiana. Have you any contacts from that area? I noticed they also used the U like your family line.

Larry E. Baker
610 East Hill St
Garrett, IN 46738
[descendant of Maria (Stalcop) SMIDT/SMYTH the daughter of 2nd generation Pietter Stallcop]



STALCUP VS. STALCUP SLANDER SUIT
We are grateful to Stephen J. Stalcup of Greenwood, Indiana for these stories. Isaac Stalcup, Sr (1765-1841) was a brother to our ancestor Peter Stalcop (1763-1835), both being sons of William Stalcop (1741-1819) This slander suit involved brothers, two of Isaac Stalcup, Sr’s sons.

CIRCUIT COURT - GREENE COUNTY, INDIANA
FEBRUARY 1823 TERM

We may think of pioneer days as very different from the litigious environment of advertising lawyers we live in today. The following story shows that human nature hasn’t changed much.
 

Isaac Stalcup, Jr. and Polly, his wife, (plaintiffs) complain of James Stalcup and Margaret, his wife, (defendants) in custody do in an action and the cause. For that whereas the said Polly is a good, true, honest, chaste, and faithful citizen of the State of Indiana, and as such from the time of her nativity hitherto, hath behaved and carried herself and during all that time hath been held esteemed and respected of good name, fame, behavior and character and free from all vices of Larceny and from all suspicion of committing such crimes, by reason whereof said Polly the love and affection of her said husband and the favor, good will and esteem of all her neighbors and others to whom she was known deservedly did acquire and gain. Nevertheless, the said Margaret, not being ignorant of the premises, but contriving and maliciously intending the said Polly, not only of her good name, fame, credit and esteem to deprive, but also the same Polly infamies and scandalous amongst her neighbors aforesaid to render and also the same Polly to bring into the dangers of the penalties of the laws of this State made against those who commit Larceny.

Declare on the first day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred twenty two at County Circuit and State aforesaid within jurisdiction of this Court, the false, feigned, infamous, malicious and scandalous following of said Polly in the presence and hearing of the said Isaac Stalcup, and of other good and worthy citizens of this State maliciously and unjustly did say, speaking with a loud voice proclaim in public, to wit, “ She (meaning the said Polly) took my shift” (meaning the said shift of the said Margaret) and stated it and that “She (meaning the said Polly) was a thief and that Isaac Stalcup (meaning said Isaac) upheld her (meaning the said Polly) in it.” Meaning that Polly is guilty of Larceny.

And whereas also said Margaret. Out of her further malice and made to effectually injure and aggrieve the said Polly and her good name, credit and reputation to deprive afterwards, heretofore to wit on the same day and year last aforesaid at the County Circuit and State aforementioned and within the jurisdiction of the Court, in certain other discourse then and there had in the presence and hearing of aforesaid good and worthy citizens of this State of and concerning the said Polly other false, feigned, scandalous, malicious and defaming words in English in the presence and hearing of said citizens with a loud voice did openly publish falsely, wickedly and Maliciously utter the substance and to the effect the following, to wit: “Polly Stalcup (meaning said Polly) is a thief (meaning said Polly) she stole my shift (meaning the shift of said Margaret)” meaning that said Polly is guilty of Larceny.

And whereas also the said Margaret out of her further malice and more effectually to injure and aggrieve said Polly and her good name, fame, credit and reputation to deprive afterwards, therefore to wit on the same day and year last aforesaid at the County Circuit and State aforesaid in certain other discourse then and there had with the aforesaid good and worthy citizens of the State of and concerning the said Polly, there and then false, feigned, scandalous, malicious, and hearing of said citizens, with a loud voice did openly and publicly, falsely, wickedly and maliciously utter, pronounce and declare of and concerning the said Polly in substance and to the effect the following, to wit: “ You (meaning the said Polly) are a thief.” “You (meaning the said Polly) stole my shift.” Meaning thereby that the said Polly is guilty of Larceny. By means of the speaking and publishing of which said false and scandalous words the same Polly not only in her good name and fame aforementioned is grievously hurt and injured; but also the same Isaac and Polly in performing their lawful business are much the worse. To the damage of said Isaac and Polly two-thousand dollars and therefore they bring suit.”
 

WITNESSES SUMMONED FOR THIS TRIAL

Thomas Osburn & Polly Osburn                              John Craig & Wife
Thomas Stalcup & Elizabeth Stalcup                        Alexander Craig
John Wilson & Wife                                                 Elmer Craig
John Davis                                                               Eli Adams
Benjamin Hashaw

The March 1823 Term of the Greene County, Indiana Circuit Court was presided over by W.W. Wicks, with Martin Wines, Associate Judge. Thomas Warnick, Clerk; John Lemon, Sheriff; and Smith Elkins, Prosecuting Attorney, also served.

After being continued and delayed until all of the witnesses could be brought into court, the case was tried during the May 1824 Term, before Judges Jacob Call, Thomas Bradford, and Martin Wines. The Jury selected for this case included Elias Crance, Morris R. Barnet, Peter Herrington, John Kelly, William Buckles, John Baty, James Johnston, John Hill, John Van Vorst, Robert Bailey, John Mason, and William Bland.

After a long and laborious trial spanning seven days the Jury was given case.
 

The Jury awarded the Plaintiffs a payment of six cents.

The outcome of this case, a six-cent judgment for a two thousand dollar claim for a damaged reputation, reflects the relative standing of these two sons of pioneer settler Isaac Stalcup, Sr in the community.

“James Stalcup, probably born in Sumner County Tennessee, from whence he married Miss Margaret Mar[t]lin, an Irish lady. They came to Greene County in the year 1818, and settled on the hill just east of where Worthington now stands. He established the first blacksmith shop in this neighborhood. Mr. Stalcup afterwards moved over on the east side of White River, and lived there fifty years. He made the best axes and Cary plows of any blacksmith in Greene County. He also built the first [brick] house in the county.....James Stalcup and wife had eight children--three boys and five girls.....He died at the age of eighty-six years and is buried on the old homestead farm....”

Isaac Stalcup Jr. was not such a pillar of the community.

“At all elections and general musters, the candidates must and did treat the people to whiskey’ and when they succeeded in getting up a big fight at any place here, big Isaac Stalcup Jr and Benjamin Stalcup [another brother] were in it....”

It is said that Mr. Stalcup was a drinking man and a widower, having sold his first wife to another man for a new fur hat and ten gallons of whiskey. This first wife that was supposedly sold for whiskey and a new fur hat would be the Polly Craig Stalcup whose honor was deemed worth six cents in the 1824 Slander Case. Isaac Stalcup and Polly Craig were issued a marriage license on September 18, 1816 in Harrison Co., Indiana.

“The first weddings in this locality [Highland Township, Greene Co. IN], included Isaac Stalcup Jr. and Miss Mournen Martin. The man and woman then floated down White River in a water craft...”

Isaac Stalcup Jr. is virtually invisible in subsequent years, not appearing in any Greene County Census enumeration, even though he is supposed to have lived there until his death in 1872.


During the same May 1824 Term of the Greene County, Indiana Circuit Court which heard the Slander case, the following indictment was issued for Isaac Stalcup, Jr.

State of Indiana
vs.
Isaac Stalcup
Indictment for Assault and Battery on Henry Martin

 

The Grand Jurors for the State of Indiana come and are sworn to inquire in and for the body of the County of Greene at the May term of the Greene Circuit Court held in the year of our Lord Eighteen hundred and twenty-four. In the name of, by and under the authority of the State of Indiana upon their oath present that Isaac Stalcup of the said County, did on the tenth day of July in the year of our Lord Eighteen hundred and twenty-three with force and affray at the County aforesaid did therein come upon one Henry Martin in the Peace of the State of Indiana, then and there being an assault did make on the said Henry Martin then and there beat, wound and treat contrary to the form of the Statute in such case made and provision and against the Peace and dignity of the State of Indiana. Abel Burlingame, Foreman of Grand Jury.
 
Smith Elkins
Prosecuting Attorney
Greene County

The outcome of this indictment is unknown.

 



SPY FOR THE FBI

Mary Stalcup Markward
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Mary R. Stalcup Markward, born February 10, 1922, died November 23, 1972 [1] in Silver Springs, MD, was for seven years a member of the Washington, DC "District Communist Party" as director of the party's membership. She was a beauty shop operator but actually was working undercover for the FBI. [2]

Biography


She was born as Mary R. Stalcup to Maria and Benjamin Stalcup. [3] Benjamin Stalcup worked as a government bookbinder. She lived in Fairfax County, Virginia and was recruited by the FBI in 1943, just a week after her wedding. Her husband, George A. Markward (1912–1969), had been sent to Europe to fight in World War II. She was working in a beauty shop on Massachusetts Avenue. [2][4]. She may have been approached to spy because several of her clients were thought to be Communists by the FBI. Her daughter believed that her mother's essay written about her pride in being an American brought her to the attention of the FBI. The essay was published in a local Virginia paper. [2] Markward worked undercover for almost seven years, a time that was stressful for her because she was shunned by friends and family because of her activities with the Party. [4][5]

Markward testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on July 11, 1951 that Annie Lee Moss and about 240 other people were Communist party members. [5] She provided the names of their spouses and gave the exact dates of party meetings. While her memory of membership and Party activities was largely accurate, Markward did not provide evidence that the Communist Party had any strength in the DC area. At one point in her testimony, she even joked about the Party's inability to recruit young, new members. In the list of members she did provide, there appeared to be a connection between Party membership and Civil Rights activism; several people whom Markward accused were less involved with communism and more concerned with picketing segregated areas of the city. Her accusation of Annie Lee Moss is the most remembered; Moss categorically denied membership or collusion with Communists, despite Markward's confirmation of Moss' address and registrations with the party. Later historical accounts show Moss did have some interest in social justice, belonged to a cafeteria workers' union, and may have had friends who took her to leftist meetings. [8]

Mary Stalcup Markward contracted multiple sclerosis early in her life—the primary reason she left the service of the FBI. FBI officials refused to acknowledge her later on, and went so far as to tax retroactively the income she received as an undercover agent. Her daughter has called herself and her mother patriots who supported the US government, but she admits that the FBI could have treated her better after she came forward. She died on November 23, 1972 in Silver Spring, Maryland at age 50. [1][6] She was buried in Baltimore National Cemetery.[7]
 

References
1 - "Mary Markward, FBI Informant, Dies.". Washington Post. November 25, 1972. "Mary Stalcup Markward, a
       beauty shop operator who became an FBI informant and identified more than 200 persons as Communists during
       congressional hearings in the early 1950s, died of heart failure Thursday at her home in Silver Spring, Maryland.
       She was 50."
2 - "Pointing the Way in the Hunt for Communists.". Washington Post. July 5, 1999. Retrieved 2007-09-25. "Mary
       Stalcup Markward appeared nervous as she made her way into the cramped hearing room on the morning of
       July 11, 1951. ..."
3 - 1930 US Census with Stalcup in Fairfax, Virginia
4 - "Woman Tells of Outwitting Reds In Seven Years as Agent for F.B.I.". New York Times. July 7, 1951, Saturday.
       Retrieved 2008-03-11. "Mrs. Mary Stalcup Markward, 29-year old former beauty shop worker, told today how
       she worked for nearly seven years as an undercover agent for the Federal"
5 - "F.B.I. Woman Limns Hard Lives of Reds. Agent Discloses Communist Party Tactics.". New York Times.
       July 12, 1951, Thursday. Retrieved 2008-03-11. "A Communist's life is not a happy one, the House committee on
       Un-American Activities was told today by a young woman who had spent almost seven years as a rank-and-file
       member of the party while an undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation."
6 - Social Security Death Index; Mary Markward; b. 10 February 1922 - d. November 1972
7 - "Mary S. Markward". Findagrave. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
8 - "Witness Insists Officer was Red. Thierman Belonged to Party if She Processed His Card, Ex-F.B.I. Woman Says."
       New York Times. May 2, 1953, Saturday. Retrieved 2008-06-21. "Mrs. Mary Stallcup Markward, a former
       undercover agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, asserted today it would "not be even remotely possible"
       for her to have processed the Communist party application card of Lieut. Sheppard Carl Thierman without his
       already having been accepted as a member."
 


JESSE STALCUP - FELL OFF WAGON

Benton Co., Arkansas

Rogers Democrate newspaper Aug 23, 1917

Jesse Stalcup, 20-year old son of J. W. Stalcup died yesterday morning after a very brief illness at the home of his father in the north part of town. It is understood that death was the result of a rupture of a blood vessel, the result of a fall from a dray wagon on which he had been working. He had lived here many years and his death was a great shock to the many friends and relatives.

Benton Co., Arkansas Obit of Jesse Stallcup:

Rogers, Democrate newspaper Aug 30, 1917

Jesse Stallcup: Funeral services for Jesse Stallcup, 20 year old son of John W. Stallcup, who died August 2, 1917 were held last Thursday afternoon at three o'clock at the home of his father and were conducted by Rev. C. A. Rogers. Interment was in the Rogers Cemetery. Among those who came to attend the funeral were a brother, Nim Stallcup of Kansas City, and two sisters, Mrs. Malissa Stallcup Skaggs of Gravette and Mrs. Minnie Stallcup Brown of Fayetteville.



SUICIDE BY POLICE

FRANK CREWS, Deputy Sheriff, Killed in the line of Duty. Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, Sheriff's Office.

About 9 P.M. on Saturday night, September 5, 1953, Deputy Crews and Undersheriff A. I. Rutherford went to the Denham Hotel at Ninth and Union in Shawnee concerning a man pulling a gun on another man. As the officers approached the west entrance to the hotel they were met by 75-year-old Jess Stalcup, coming out of the hotel. The officers stopped him and questioned him about the incident. While they were talking to Stalcup, the complainant, Mr. Ewers, came out of the hotel and indicated to the officers that Stalcup was the man with the gun.

Stalcup then drew a concealed .45 automatic pistol and emptied it toward the officers. Deputy Crews was hit four times in the stomach and side. Rutherford and two bystanders were also wounded but not as seriously. Rutherford shot Stalcup three times in the neck and chest. Both Deputy Frank Crews, 54, and Jess Stalcup, 75, died at the scene. Deputy Crews was survived by his wife.

From: http://www.oklemem.com/C.htm



INTERESTING STALCOPS

 
There are many interesting members of the Stalcop family. They are scattered in time and over all parts of the country. Here are a few of them.
 
 

MR. COLONEL B. STALLCUP’S STORY
Stories of the Pioneers
From the White River Leader - 1916 or Thereabouts
Volume 2, No. 9  Fall 1966
by E.J. and L.S. Hoenshel

 

Incidents, Adventures and Reminiscences as told by some of the Old Settlers of Taney County, Missouri, 1915 White River Leader, Branson, Missouri 

Riding to the house of C. B. Stallcup about sundown one evening a short time ago, we saw a tall, erect old man at the barn, who greeted us with a pleasant "good evening". "Is this Colonel Stallcup?" we asked. "It’s what is left of him," was the answer.

"Well Colonel I am on my way to Branson, but as it is too late to get there tonight, I should like to stay all night with you." "All right, if you can put up with what we have," "Well", said I, "I have lived a good many years in this world, and have had some tough times, so I think I can stand it." After looking at me for an instant in his earnest way, he laughingly said, "All right, Come in".

After supper we sat by the old time fire-place and talked about the topics of the day, the Colonel smoked a corn-cob pipe when the conversation lagged. When bed-time came the genial host showed me to my room saying, "I am glad you came to stay all night with me."

During our conversation, Mr. Stallcup occasionally told an event or some interesting incident of his life, and from these reminiscences we get the story of his life:

I was born in Independence, Missouri, the night Thomas Benton (US Senator-MO profiled in J F Kennedy’s Profiles in Courage) spoke there in 1844. My grandfather went from North Carolina to Tennessee in an ox-wagon, and after staying there about fifteen years, moved to Jackson County, Missouri. My grandfather fought in the Revolutionary War and died at the age of 109.

My father came to Taney County when I was five years old, and settled on what is now the Clinkbeard farm. I have lived in Taney County ever since, except while I was in the army.

When we came here, there were a post office and one little store at Forsyth. There was a mill where Kissee Mills now is, known as Nelson’s Mill. There were not many people here—only a few families between our place and the Arkansas line.

Schools didn’t amount to much then—all were subscription schools, and we had only three months of school in a year. The school houses were built of logs, with split logs for benches and puncheon floors. Old Jimmie Benton and my brother, Colbert, were among our teachers. All the teachers were men—no women teachers in those days. Sometimes we locked out the teacher to make him treat. Because people lived far apart, many of the children had to walk a long distance to get to school.

At that time the river was full of fish. I have helped to catch several hundred pounds at one haul with a seine. Some of the fish were big fellows, weighing twenty-five pounds or more. There were buffalo fish, drum, catfish, and many others.

I have often seen 100 to 200 turkeys in a flock. One could go out any morning and get a wild turkey or two before breakfast. Other game was plentiful. I counted thirty-five deer in one bunch near where Cedar Creek Post Office is now.

Our first year here father got his meat by shooting bears in the pineries, a few miles south of us.

There were lots of wolves here then (and it was not uncommon to see them after a pig). A wolf would run around in a circle until a small one would get separated from the rest, when he would grab it and run. Once when Bob Raines, the grandfather of the present sheriff of the county, was herding cattle in the timber, he was driven into a shanty by the wolves, and had to stay there all night.

There were no sawmills here in those days, and no lumber. Roofs were made of split clapboards and we had puncheon floors. Layton’s saw mill was the first in the county.

I enlisted in the Third Missouri cavalry of the Confederate army, July 4, 1861, at Forsyth and was paroled at Shreveport, May 27, 1865. Ike Moore, Joe McGill, Bill and Marion Ellison were in the same company, and Lafayette Snapp was our lieutenant. After enlisting we stayed at Forsyth a few days. We were there the day General Sweeney of the Federal Army came with his soldiers, but as there were only a few of us we left town. A cannon ball was shot through the courthouse at Forsyth that day.

We went from Forsyth to Springfield, and got there the day after the battle of Wilson’s Greek. We were in Price’s army and a part of Marmaduke’s brigade. Most of the time we were in Arkansas, but were in Texas part of the time. We were in many fights and skirmishes, but were never in any of the great battles of the war.

Yes, we had some hard times in the army often not much to eat. I have often taken ears of corn and parched them in the ashes for a meal.

In 1864 Uncle Bill Ellison and I came home on a furlough, and when we got close to our homes we had to keep pretty close because there were bushwackers and prowlers over the country. One night we were lying under a cliff with a big fire to keep us warm. One of my shoes got too close to the fire and was burned. There was a big snow that night, and I had to ride out the next morning with one shoe and the other foot wrapped in cloth.

There were about the same number went to each army from this county, and the regular soldiers of both sides were friendly. The bad ones were the guerillas and the bushwackers. They had no discipline except their own, and that was to steal everything they could.

No, I was not a colonel—didn’t know enough to be a colonel. I went in as a private and came out a private. My given name is Colonel.

When I was home on a furlough I was married right here where I am now living. My wife’s name was Mary J. Coulter. I went back to the army the same day, and did not see my wife until the next June. We had six girls and four boys---ten children, but two of them died young. My wife died four years ago.

Yes, I am glad to see the progress that has been made since we came here, but I sometimes think people are not as hospitable and honorable as they were then. A man very seldom, then, went back on his word, no matter whether it was in writing or not.
_____________________________________________________

 Colonel Benton “C B” Stallcup

 b-Nov 23, 1840 Independence, Jackson County, Missouri  d-July 23 1915
Oliver, Taney County, Missouri.  Burial:  Brittain Cemetery, Forsyth, Taney County, Missouri 

 Father:  Soloman Stallcup  Mother:  Mary Saunders Stallcup


 

RUBEN STALCUP
(From a 1924 Missouri newspaper obituary)
 

Passes to His Rewared at Advanced Age Suffered a Stroke of Appoplexy While Busy at His Home, Tuesday Morning.

Reuben Stalcup, aged 79 years, died at his home in the Hickory Flat country Tuesday night (April 8, 1924) from a stroke of appoplexy, which he suffered a few hours before.

Mr. Stalcup owned the farm where he had lived during the whole of his life and is perhaps the only man every born in Simpson County who lived to such a ripe old age without having at some time lived at least temporarily at some other abode.  He was never married.

The deceased was a man of high moral character, strict integrity and possessed of common honesty to a pronounced degree.  Despite the fact that he owned a farm worth $10,000 and was universally known as a shrewd and practical man of affairs, he never deposited a penny in any banking institution, always paid cash in every transaction, and it is not probable that the executor of his estate will find a farthing owing by him save and except the expenses incident to his burial.

Funeral services were conducted Wednesday by Rev. Wilson, after which burial followed in the church cemetery at McKendrie Chapel.


**************************************************
 

Ruben Stallcup was the son of Swen Jr. (Swain) and Rachel Northam Stallcup. He was a grandson of Swithin and Barbara Miller Stallcup. This article is rendered exactly how it was printed in the newspaper including misspelled words and colorful phrasing.



JESSE BRYSON STALCUP


The Family of Rev. Jesse Bryson and Alice Florance Kelly Stalcup

 

The Jesse Bryson Stalcup Collection at the Mountain Heritage Center, located on the campus of Western Carolina University in Cullowhee, N.C., consists of nearly one hundred artifacts, primarily woodworking tools and hand made furniture, either used or made by Jesse Bryson Stalcup (1860-1931). Born in that part of Macon County, N.C. that later became Swain County, Jesse was the son of Thomas Belew and Charity Jane Starnes Stalcup. The family lived near Whittier on Conley's Creek where Jesse grew up and became a carpenter. In 1881, while working in Haywood County, Jesse met and married Alice Florence Kelly (1862—1948), the daughter of Rufus Pierce and Dorothy Edmonston Kelly.  Seven of their eight children were born in or near Waynesville, NC.  The family moved briefly to Hiawassee, GA, before finally settling in Macon County, NC. where Jesse worked as a carpenter, millwright, and Baptist preacher.

Thomas Belew Stalcup was the brother to John Stallcup and uncle to the first Lucius Harvey Stallcup of Swain County. Jesse Bryson and Lucius Harvey were cousins.


 

LAWRENCE DILLON (L D) STALLCUP
Larry Spencer Stallcup
 

Lawrence Dillon Stallcup was the earliest known amateur genealogist that attempted a comprehensive research of the Stalcop Family.

L D, as he was called, was a salesman for a jewelry company. He travelled extensively all around the country into lots of small towns at a time when there were few attractions to occupy his non-working time.  It was, however, at the time when the telephone system was being extended far and wide. L D hit upon an idea that he was curious about and could be most interesting. He searched the new telephone directories everywhere he went and contacted everyone that had his surname and a telephone. He found that by asking questions of how family members happened to arrive where they were and the names of family group members was an easy way to meet his far-flung relatives. It had a second valuable benefit as well. It often got him an invitation for a nights lodging rather than have to pay to stay in a not too pleasant hotel. It also got him lots of free meals that were probably much tastier than what he could get in a small town’s restaurants.

Eventually L D had travelled enough and had learned enough that he began to have a fairly good idea of the extent of the Stalcop family and some comprehension of the scope of the family. But there is evidence that he did not have a solid understanding of the very early family and of their Swedish origin. It is clear that he did not understand the patronymic naming system our ancestors used. That led him to miss an entire range of early first and second-generation records. He also misunderstood some of the relationships between members of the early New Sweden community. He had a hard time distinguishing family myths from facts. He was taken in by several of the myths. The infamous Sea cook-greasy cap origin story, invented in 1846, is only one of those myths.
 

AN OUTLINE OF THE LINEAGE AND MIGRATIONS OF THE STALLCOP (STALCUP - STALLCUP - STAULCUP) FAMILIES.
 

 

All-in-all L D achieved a remarkable result. Keep in mind that L D was doing his family investigations as a hobby and in a random fashion. His most difficult handicap was that he was operating in a period when you had to personally go visit or write to every courthouse in every county in every state where your kinfolk may have lived. In order to record family groups he almost had to visit each one of them.

At some moment L D decided to consolidate all that he had learned and compile it into a book. To aid in this work he created a number of pedigree type charts that connected parent to children. Easy to miss some of them, especially if they did not have a telephone. And very easy to make incorrect lineage connections. Being a travelling salesman certainly gave L D far more opportunities to visit in family homes and county courthouses than the average person but it still was a sort of random, hit or miss, process rather than being a systematic, planned, approach. His Outline is a 16 page series of charts that trace those members of the family L D was able to find and identify. He placed copies of his outline in several public repositories so copies have survived and come down to us. He sent copies of some of the charts as enclosures within his letters to help explain lineage connections. CHART “A”, showing the early family, found its way into a number of letters that traveled all over the country. The copy above is known to have traveled across the country twice. L D mailed it from Florida to the State of Washington on the west coast. Years later it was given to the writer’s uncle, Fred Stallcup, who carried it back across the country to Norfolk, Virginia where he eventually gave it to Larry Stallcup. Notice the Dutch spelling of the primogenitors’ name at the bottom. The manual corrections in the chart are a combination of English and Swedish spellings of his names.

The ink notations and corrections on the chart are in L D’s hand.

Chart “A” has a number of omissions and lineage errors. For example, Johan (17) and Johan (19) appear to be interchanged so are connected to the wrong father. A number of people are omitted, particularly in the fifth and sixth generations. L D mixed up William (83) and William (53). The William identified here as (53) lived most of his life in North Carolina, was married twice and had two families totaling sixteen children. Peter (27) had nine children and lived the last 30 year of his life in southwestern Virginia. His son named William (83) moved to Missouri and never lived in North Carolina. There are other errors and omissions.

The fate of the manuscript for L D’s book is a tragic story. L D soon learned a little known but harsh fact. Publishers will not finance the publication of books that have a very small chance for sales. Family histories and genealogies are at the top of their list of books to avoid. On the other hand publishers are very willing to have someone pay them to publish such books. Getting his manuscript into print was going to be a most expensive burden for L D. But he was, after all, a very experienced salesman. He found a person that was convinced that the collection of correspondence, books and pamphlets and the manuscript were just the opposite of reality. This person was eager to purchase them and was convinced that they were worth a great pile of gold. L D apparently did not try to convince him otherwise and sold him just about everything. This led to the tragic loss of the entirety of L D’s work.

The man who purchased the manuscript and the back-up collection jealously guarded his purchase. Several offers were made to re-purchase the material to make it available for research purposes. One offer was of double the original purchase price, but all offers were scoffed at. There was another obstacle involved. The buyer believed he was descended from Swithin Stallcup, one of the more elusive members of the family at that time. No one was allowed to examine the manuscript unless they could provide the complete history of Swithin and his descendants. No one could do that because Swithin was still hidden in the mist of time. Swithin’s Will only recently, a quarter century later, has been discovered in a different state, and a decade after, his last known place of residence. Everyone had been looking for Swithin in the wrong state and in the wrong era.

The son of the buyer had a strong dislike of the entire subject. He mentioned to several people that he would destroy the entire collection if he ever gained control of it. Soon after the last offer to purchase the material was made it was revealed that his father was suffering from cancer. He died a short while later. His son apparently quickly made good on his vow to destroy all of the material. No trace of any part of it has been seen since.

Nearly the entirety of L D’s lifework, except for his Outline, has been lost to the Stalcop family. Earl E. Jones of near Nashville, TN, the son of a Stalcop daughter, became the second great chronicler of the Stalcop Family. Earl spent more than twenty years recording and compiling as many of the family members that he could find. He began with L D’s OUTLINE and worked from there. Unlike L D he did his compiling by the postal service. When published in 1983 it consisted of three volumes of over 1900 pages. It is not a family history bur rather a compilation listing of family members.  Earl passed away soon after it was published. Copies of his work are available in several large libraries all across the country including the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, UT

Families are dynamic in nature and continually change. The Stalcop family has been growing and evolving no matter that Lawrence Dillon Stallcup and Earl Jones stopped recording family members. The total number of Stalcop Family members has no doubt increased since their work stopped and it will continue to do so on into the future.

 

**************************************************

 

WILLIAM B. STALLCUP JR.
 

William B. Stallcup Jr., who rose through the academic ranks to serve as president ad interim of Southern Methodist University during one of the most crucial periods in its history, died Saturday, June 7, at his home in Ranchos de Taos, N.M., following a long illness. He was 87.

A biology professor who never intended to be an administrator, Stallcup served in various administrative positions for half of his four decades at SMU. The most critical of these was when he was named SMU’s president ad interim in 1986 following the sudden retirement of SMU President L. Donald Shields and SMU’s sanctions for NCAA football rules violations. Stallcup provided leadership and integrity during this period by presiding over sweeping reforms in SMU’s athletics programs and governance structure, and helping restore public confidence in the University.

“A dedicated teacher, Bill Stallcup repeatedly answered the call to serve as an administrator in times of special need,” said SMU President R. Gerald Turner. “He provided leadership most importantly as interim president during a troubled time. SMU’s transition to brighter days would not have been possible without his leadership, integrity and dedication. He also was instrumental in helping to develop SMU-in-Taos as a unique educational resource. In the history of SMU, he stands out as an exemplary steward of positive change.”

Born in Dallas, Stallcup was an Eagle Scout, graduated from Forest Avenue High School in 1937 and received scholarships to SMU, working summers as a laborer for the Dallas Railway and Terminal Company. He originally planned to attend medical school, but a weekend job testing lake water in East Texas to determine the cause of a dwindling fish supply kindled his love of the outdoors and the challenges of applying biology to ecological problems. He graduated from SMU with a Bachelor of Science degree in biology in 1941 and became an aquatic biologist and chemist for the City of Dallas. He married Marcile (Pat) Patterson in 1942, also a biology student at SMU, who provided unfailing care and support for 65 years.

When World War II started, Stallcup joined the U.S. Air Force. He was a waist gunner and radar counter-measure specialist, stationed with the Royal Air Force in England and flying in B-24 bombers and P-38 Lightning’s over western Europe. A first lieutenant, he received the Air Medal and several oak leaf clusters. Following the war, he was a biology instructor at SMU until the start of the Korean War in 1950, when he was recalled to active duty. Instead of placing him again in combat, however, the Air Force decided his services were needed teaching pre-med students at the University of Kansas. While there, he earned his Ph.D. in zoology. He returned to SMU as an assistant professor of biology in 1954 and was promoted to full professor in 1962.

In the years that followed his return to SMU, Stallcup served as chair of the Department of Biological Sciences, associate dean of faculty in Dedman College, associate provost twice, special assistant to the president, acting provost twice and interim president from November 1986 to August 1987. He also taught summer classes at SMU-in-Taos for more than 20 years and was a civic leader in the Taos community, serving as Chairman of the Board of the Ghost Ranch Living Museum and the Taos Institute of Art, and overseeing development of a new facility for the Taos Humane Society.

Stallcup wanted to retire from the University as a teacher, so after serving as president ad interim, he returned to teaching until his retirement in 1989. Still, SMU asked him to serve in one more capacity. As he and his wife, Pat, planned to move to Taos, he agreed to serve as resident director of SMU-in-Taos in New Mexico from 1990-1992.

“Bill Stallcup’s passing is monumental in terms of his contribution to SMU,” said Marshall Terry, professor emeritus of English and an authority on the history of the University. “He was a person of intelligence, integrity and quiet courage. His interim presidency during the trials of the football scandal made all the difference, because the faculty, staff and students believed in him as a person and leader. He was a gentle man who represented the best in SMU.”

Echoing Terry’s sentiments was James E. Brooks, provost emeritus of SMU, who named Stallcup as associate dean when Brooks was dean of Dedman College, and as associate provost when Brooks was provost. He said, “Bill Stallcup was a quiet, unassuming person who contributed to SMU in many ways over many years. It is for his very effective handling of the presidency and the University in the time of crisis that he will most be remembered – but that is only a partial measure of the ways in which SMU is in Bill Stallcup’s debt!”

While at SMU, Stallcup received numerous research grants, professional honors and awards for service. In appreciation of his service as president ad interim, the SMU Board of Trustees established the Dr. William B. Stallcup Jr. Scholarship in Biology in 1987. He was honored in 2002 as a recipient of SMU’s Distinguished Alumni Award.

Most recently, the SMU Board of Trustees honored Stallcup with the Trustee Distinguished Service Award at its meeting May 9, 2008. In its resolution honoring him, the board commended “the strength of his integrity and earned respect. . . His conduct of the University’s affairs . . . restored the confidence of the faculty, students, staff and alumni in the administrative leadership of the University.”

Stallcup had been a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Sigma Xi scientific research society, American Society of Mammalogists, American Ornithologists’ Union and Texas Ornithological Society, and was a past president of the North Texas Biological Society. He also had been listed in American Men of Science.

Stallcup is survived by his wife, Marcile “Pat” Patterson Stallcup of Ranchos de Taos; a brother, Robert A. Stallcup of Houston; three daughters, Lisë Stallcup Engel of Dallas, Cathy Melanie Stallcup of Albuquerque, and Jerre Ann Stallcup of Encinitas, Calif.; two sons, Michael R. Stallcup of Los Angeles and William B. Stallcup III of Encinitas, Calif.; and six grandchildren.


 

JACKIE STALLCUP

 

Jackie Stallcup, chair of the Department of English, still can’t believe she gets paid to do something she loves as much as teaching at California State University, Northridge. She said it’s particularly hard to believe because her career trajectory has been anything but direct to teaching.

After high school, Stallcup was accepted into Cal State Los Angeles’ honors business program. But she didn’t know much about careers in business beyond that business people wore suits and carried briefcases. Stallcup went to Cerritos Community College instead and then redirected her energy toward a major in animal science at Cal Poly Pomona. But she second-guessed that option when she heard that students were required to castrate a pig—perhaps, rumor had it, with their teeth.

It wasn’t until Stallcup’s junior year at Pomona that she took freshman composition — a mystery she really can’t explain. After receiving positive feedback on her writing, she felt that perhaps she had finally found her niche. She changed her major to English and upon graduation worked in publishing for six years. Eventually turned off by the grind of working at a monthly magazine, she became attracted to the idea of teaching and entered a doctorate program in literature at UC Riverside.

It was in an 18th century literature course at Riverside that Stallcup wrote a paper on “Gulliver’s Travels,” responding to the story’s elements as a work of children’s literature. “It was another moment of aha! I’ve finally found my place!” she said. Stallcup was fascinated with what children’s literature can tell us about popular conceptions of childhood.

Still, one last hurdle remained in her career path: her first, observed student teaching session. She recounts, “I hauled myself to the top of the stairs and stood there for a moment. Off to my left was the classroom and straight in front of me was the women’s room. It was a moment of decision. I could go teach my class, or I could go puke.” Stallcup chose the former. She said her nervousness almost instantly melted away. She has loved stepping in front of a class ever since.

Doctorate underway, she practically forced herself on Cal Poly Pomona, convincing English department officials that they needed a children’s literature specialist. “While there were faculty members teaching children’s literature, people who would help me a great deal, there was no one there for whom it was a ruling passion,” Stallcup said. Once she graduated from Riverside, her experience teaching at Cal Poly helped her to earn the job as a children’s literature specialist at CSUN. Though scholarship in children’s literature has come a long way over the past two decades, there are still professors who doubt that it bears academic scrutiny or they simply dismiss the point of analyzing what they refer to as “cute kiddie books,” Stallcup said. She encourages academics to look past the juvenile humor—or, more to the point, the poop jokes—in Dav Pilkey’s “The Adventures of Captain Underpants” to “reconsider some of the [literary] boundaries that have marked our world.”

Knowing that students are often dogged by the same level of judgment about their academic and career choices, Stallcup is enthusiastic about mentorship. She considers it a benefit that she grew up in southeast Los Angeles. She attended some of the same community colleges, shares some of the same cultural references and faced some of the same indecision about college as many of her students. “I have had so many incredibly patient, kind and encouraging mentors to help me figure out who I am, what I want to do and how to do the things that I want to do,” she said. “Connecting with a mentor is one of the most important things that I think anyone can do.”

In fact, as pleased as she is to have been elected as English chair earlier this year, she’s not sure how she’s going to get through the next several years without teaching, perhaps in part because she feels she learns as much from her students as they learn from her.

Stallcup, who has taught at CSUN since 1999, lives in Ontario, Calif., with her husband, Wade, an artist, as well as a menagerie of pets including five cats, one dog and two horses. She says that caring for the horses is a soothing exercise for her.

Another “therapeutic” activity is knitting.

“I knit in meetings because, believe it or not, it really helps me to focus,” she said. “So, if I’m in a meeting with you and I’m knitting away at a hat or a pair of baby booties, you know that I’m really listening and absorbing with all my might.” That said, Stallcup said please don’t take it personally if she doesn’t knit when she’s meeting with you.

 

SHANE STALCUP
September 21, 1961 - May 11, 2011
 

Saying Goodbye      May 24, 2011
 

Back in the early 80's I met a young man named Shane Stalcup who tied flies commercially for Colorado Anglers in Lakewood, Colorado. He had given up his study of Architecture and switched, instead, to designing and tying those amazing flies of his. Over the years he proved to be an angler who continued to grow in the industry. He was one of the fastest tiers that I ever met, capable of tying thousands of flies each year that made the development of physical problems in his latter years so tragic.

Regularly in those early years, though I would go over to his house or he would come over to mine and we would share ideas about ways to design, redesign and perfect our flies.

Shane was a quite man - he never ran around telling the world he was the greatest.  He allowed his work to do the talking for him.

He and I went on many an escapades fishing the famous South Platte River, located south of Denver.

When he wasn't tying, Shane loved to play golf or go fishing.  I would always kid with him and tell him not to try and reinvent the game of golf! He would always tease me and suggest I check my cholesterol since I had been working on a system of using oils to fill hollow tubing tied on my flies. We had a great relationship. Perhaps only the folks closest to us knew this.

Shane had taken classes from John Betts, Archey Best, Tim England and myself, who were working with tubing in the design of flies. This exposure to so many techniques and the craft of his friends, led him to develop a very individual style as a tier.

He never really asked for much. In fact, he was more than happy to help if asked to do so. One year, I developed a video entitled, “Mike Tucker's Liquid Filled Flies, Volume One”.  Prior to production, I asked Shane if he would help me develop the coloration for a shrimp pattern that I'd developed.  I hadn't even finished my sentence before he asked, “How can I help”?

Together, we designed a color phase for the scud that I entitled Shane's Sand Scud.

He had a knack for working with colors, dyeing feathers for shops and working with markers.  He understood the blending and how light worked which helps trigger responses from the fish. We used to talk long into the night about different synthetics and the mechanics of using them.

Shane Stalcup was not only a friend but also a brother.  Through fly tying and the processing of related ideas we eventually developed a lifetime bond. He and I were going to write a book together on synthetics this coming year. The first book he wrote, "Mayflies", was a masterful piece of work.  He would not release anything unless he was sure the biology contained all the correct facts and that the patterns were flies that truly worked!  He was also working on a new book about Caddis.

I will miss Shane Stalcup.

The fly-tying world has lost a great member that we all cherished.

I know Shane was in a lot of pain but now is running, fishing and playing once again. I hope our paths shall meet again, for I have more ideas to share with him.

God Bless you Shane, and sleep well.

Michael A. Tucker


Posted on the Internet by Andy Huber

HOOK FLYFISHING  
2030 E. County Line Rd.
Highlands Ranch, CO 80126


RICH STALLCUP  [Richard W. Stallcup]

 

Rich Stallcup is a legend in his own time, one of the most famous and prolific birder in California. He was a teenager when he began bird watching and he has continued to play a significant role in the State's birding world ever since.

In 2002, the American Birding Association presented Rich with the Ludlow Griscom Award for outstanding contributions to American ornithology. Rich was a founder of and is a current naturalist at Point Reyes Bird Observatory (PRBO). He was among the first team of birders to visit the Farallones, with both spring and fall visits in 1967. He was president of Western Field Ornithologists (1975-1978), and was an American Birds Regional Editor for 11 seasons. He served on the California Bird Records Committee for 8 years. He was one of the original founders of the "Wings" birding tour company in the late 1980s and has led bird tours throughout North America.

Rich has been birding California for almost the entirety of his colorful life. He discovered many of the top vagrant traps on outer Pt. Reyes and elsewhere along the California coast. His birding on Pt. Reyes is the stuff of mythology; he found or co-found about 90 first Marin County records. Rich has long held the highest lists for both Marin County and for Northern California as a whole. He has also participated in innumerable Big Days and Birdathons and has held numerous monthly and county Big Day records.

He has had a major impact wherever he has lived. Drafted in the Vietnam War era and posted to Monterey for a short time, he was soon a force there. He is associated with 18 first Monterey County records from as far back as 1967 to as recent as 2002 He has always had a serious interest in seabirds, and his Pelagic Birds of Monterey Bay (Stallcup 1976) is a classic; the paper has been reprinted as a booklet and is still in-print. His Ocean Birds of the Nearshore Pacific (1990) is an exceptional introduction to sea-birding. Rich also took what he learned from teaching bird classes and leading bird tours to self-publish Birds for Real (1985).
 

=========================================


MUSICIANS

GLENN STALLCOP
 

Glenn Stallcop is an active pianist, composer, and double bassist based in Phoenix, Arizona. He was born in 1950 in Vancouver, Wash., and grew up in Seattle. As a pianist, he has been primarily active in improvisation and the performance of his own compositions. He has written many works for solo piano as well as chamber music works including the piano. Most of his solo piano compositions were written before 1990, after which his solo piano interests turned to improvisation. His 1998 CD of solo piano improvisation, Dreamcatcher, was nominated for a Grammy.

He has been a double bassist with the Phoenix Symphony Orchestra since 1973. He is a successful classical composer with over 75 published compositions. Symphonies, festivals, and chamber musicians throughout the United States have performed his music. The Phoenix Symphony Orchestra alone has performed nine of his orchestral works including Sunscape in 1987, commissioned by the Arizona Diamond Jubilee Commission. His orchestra works have been performed by the Seattle Symphony, along with other professional, college, festival and youth orchestras. His composition for bass and piano, Vision Quest, won the 2004 David Walter Composition prize from the International Society of Bassists. He founded and directed the Arizona Composers Forum from 1983-89. He was awarded the Performing Arts Fellowship in Composition from the Arizona Commission on the Arts in 1995.

He received a bachelor's of music degree from the University of Washington in 1976 and a master's degree in music from Arizona State University where he was awarded Outstanding Graduate in Music History, Theory, and Composition in 1993. In 1973, Stallcop moved to Phoenix to take a position as double bassist with the Phoenix Symphony. BassScores and the American Composers Alliance (ACA) publish his written music. He has been a member of Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) since 1977, and was elected to ACA in New York in 1982.

At the keyboard, Stallcop has been active in popular music, jazz, free improvisation and the performance of his own music. After extensively playing rock-and-roll in his teens, he turned to jazz in the 1970s. Since 1977, he has performed almost exclusively in free improvisation, both as a soloist and in ensemble. In 1998 Arizona University Recordings released his CD of solo piano improvisation, Dreamcatcher (AUR/Horizon CD 3007). It received Grammy nominations in two categories.
 

JACK STAULCUP
 

The Jack Staulcup Orchestra was a Midwestern territory band that operated out of Paducah, Kentucky.

Jack Staulcup was a resident of Metropolis, Illinois. In 1950, the band members, traveling in a school bus with seats that didn't recline, played many one-nighters, with the musicians sleeping overnight on the bus. At one point, the band played 30 one-nighters in a row. In the summer of 1950, the band recorded for Oriole Records in Chicago. The session took place at a radio station in a skyscraper in the Loop. The orchestra is reported to have played play often at the Purple Crackle. a well known supper club, in Cape Girardeau, Missouri over a span of 17 years totaling about 850 appearances.

Many mid-Western musicians played at one time in the Staulcup Orchestra including trumpeter Jerry Ford who now runs his own orchestra.

 

J. ROY STALCUP
 

Western North Carolina banjo player, J. Roy Stalcup (1903-1990) was one of many Appalachian musicians documented in Hutchins Library's sound recordings collections.

J. Roy was born in the Martins Creek area of Cherokee County, North Carolina, near the town of Murphy, December 3, 1903. His father, Marcus Edgar Stalcup, was a farmer who supplemented the family income with work in the copper mines in nearby Copper Hill, Tennessee. J. Roy’s mother was a member of the Hatchett family from the Bellview area on the North Carolina-Georgia line. Her family had come from Alamance County in the 1850’s, headed west by wagon, but ended up settling in the Murphy area, working at farming, gold and talc mining.

J. Roy’s schooling included Murphy High School, the academy at north Georgia’s Harris College, and Kentucky’s Berea College where he discovered an aptitude for engineering. Upon leaving Berea in 1930, he went to work for the United States Forest Service as a surveyor, working on establishing the boundaries of what was to become the Great Smokey Mountains National Park. Further education in civil engineering led to a twenty-year stint with the U.S. Forest Service in Mississippi and then several more years in the private sector that took him to Japan, Cambodia, Iran, and Iceland.

Musically, J. Roy followed the lead of his father and two uncles, all banjo players. He well remembered his father’s banjo as having “a cat skin head and a slick (fretless) neck.” Of the neighborhood dances they played for, he remembered, “they’d clear the floor at one of these houses down here and get a fiddle and banjo, that’s all they wanted…they could just dance to a fiddle if they didn’t have a banjo, but they preferred to have a banjo for rhythm…"

J. Roy got his first banjo in 1915 at age twelve, paid for in part from the door-to-door sale of homegrown vegetables around Murphy. The distinctive playing style he developed was something of a departure from the two-finger (thumb and forefinger) style he had seen and heard from his father and uncles. It didn’t require picks, “just naked fingers” as J. Roy once put it. The finger action which he called a strum was marked by picking up with the forefinger rather than down with it. He once explained, “I didn’t learn it from anybody, I just took it up. I couldn’t ever learn to play that way, (thumb and fore-finger) so I got on just dragging this finger across the strings.”


_________________________________________________________________________________
adapted from Lee Knight’s articles about J. Roy Stalcup that originally appeared December 13 and 20, 1979, in The Cherokee Scout & Clay County Progress, Murphy, North Carolina.

 

OLD SETTLERS’
FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION
July 4, 1875
GREENE COUNTY, INDIANA
 

Worthington, Indiana, Times - July 8, 1875
 

The Old Pioneer Settlers’ meeting and Basket Picnic, on Saturday, July 4th, 1875, in honor of the 99th anniversary of American Independence, was a splendid success.  Early in the morning the people took up their line of march, and began to gather at the Picnic grounds, just west of town, by the hundreds; and at ten o’clock the Stalcup Martial Band arrived and began to play.

Old Jimmy Newsome was the oldest man present, and was the first to take a seat in the stand.  He was in feeble health, and said he would never be at another celebration.  By request of Uncle Jack Baber, the exercises were opened with prayer by Rev. John Laverty, following which was a very nice little speech of fifteen minutes’ length, by the same gentleman, in which he explained to the young people the reasons why the fourth day of July was made a national holiday.  The Declaration of Independence was read by Benjamin Stalcup, after which Rev. Robert Blount came to the front and occupied about ten minutes in the delivery of a very interesting oration.   Capt. E.E. Rose excused himself very agreeably to all, by making a five minutes’ speech and then announcing to the people that it was dinner time, and the old folks could talk and be social, while the young folks might court and enjoy themselves for a couple of hours.

The old people and young folks fully enjoyed the pleasures during recess, and at two o’clock the audience reassembled at the stand, and while the band played “Jay-Bird”, the following named old pioneers took their seats: Elias DayhoffGeorge T. Taylor, William GriffithWilliam J. McIntoshWilliam HueyWilliam DyerCyrus Conant, Ira DanelyJames HarrahRice ElganDavid Heaton, Alfred Kutch, J.F. Allison, Virgil Crance, and others.

We could not determine just who was managing the Picnic besides the old settlers, as we noticed Captain E.E. RoseMahlon NealJames BeachDr. William L. GreenDr. J.S.R. BenefieldReverend James Hughes and others on the stand.  During the afternoon short speeches were made by Elias Dayhoff, William J. McIntosh and Colonel E.H.C. Cavins; and at three o’clock the people were dismissed by Uncle Jack Baber, who promised them a big centennial and old-fashioned barbeque, July 4, 1876, just west of Worthington.  The crowd numbered about two thousand, and be it said to the credit of all present, that no man was seen drunk on the grounds.

 

________________________________________________

This newspaper article has been contributed by Steven J. Stalcup of Greenwood, IN.  Steven is an indefatigable Stalcop Family researcher. He has made innumerable discoveries that have contributed greatly to our family history. Permission also from Link: http://www.countyhistory.com
 




 

Stalcop Ireland, Ltd.
Underhill Industrial Estate,
County Cork
Dunmanway,
Ireland

 

Apparently not a single Stalcop, Stalcup or Stallcup is, or was, involved in the formation or operation of this company. The company is totally separate from the Stalcop family. The company name was derived from a combination of beginning letters from the metals the company initially used.


Steel = St,
Aluminum = al
Copper = cop
 

COMPANY OVERVIEW
 

The Stalcop Company manufactures custom engineered copper and plastic components for the electrical, computer, health care, automotive, and leisure industry. In addition to copper and plastic, parts are fabricated from steel, brass, stainless steel, aluminum, and silicon bronze. Its products are available under two categories: metal products and plastic products.

The Stalcop Company was founded in 1981. The company has manufacturing facilities at Thorntown, Indiana, Germany and Ireland. Stalcop serves diverse markets throughout North America, Europe and Northern Asia.



TWENTIETH CENTURY MILITARY HEROES
THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS
 

Stalcup, James, U.S. Army - World War I
 

CITATION:


The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Private James Stalcup (ASN: 1314522), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving with Company C, 114th Machine-Gun Battalion, 30th Division, A.E.F., near La Haie, France, 17 October 1918. During the attack of the enemy position, Private Stalcup, although wounded in the shoulder by a shell fragment, continued to go forward with his section for seven hours until severely wounded by a trench-mortar shell. Due to his second wound, he lost his left arm. The courage and fortitude displayed by Private Stalcup enabled his section to reach its objective with all its guns.
 

Stallcup, Odie T., U.S. Army - World War II
 

CITATION:


The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to First Lieutenant (Infantry) Odie T. Stallcup (ASN: 0-532119), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving with the 1st Battalion, 137th Infantry Regiment, 35th Infantry Division, in action against enemy forces on 27 September 1944. On that date, during an enemy counterattack near Pettencourt, France, Lieutenant Stallcup, an anti-tank platoon leader, was wounded by artillery fire. Disregarding his wounds he rallied his men and personally manned an anti-tank gun until the enemy attack was stopped. Then, having established contact with a group of riflemen, he courageously led them in a determined attack, inflicting heavy losses upon the enemy. Not until he reorganized his troops in a defensive position did he permit himself to be evacuated. Lieutenant Stallcup's inspiring, heroic leadership and supreme devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army.


WW2 The Forêt de Grémecey Battle
Odie T. Stalcup
 

General Patton's decision, on 20 September, (1944) to fix a new boundary line between the XII and XV Corps provided some protection for the south flank of the 4th Armored Division salient. But in addition the XII Corps commander was anxious to secure a firmer grip on the supply lines leading to the 4th Armored and suggested to Patton that the Forêt de Grémecey, commanding the main highway east of Nancy, should be occupied. The forest already had been used as an assembly area for CCB, 6th Armored, when, on 22 September, General Grow was sent with his armored infantry, some cavalry, and artillery to occupy this area and screen between the 80th Infantry Division and the 4th Armored. Grow's troops pinched out the 35th Division and threw a line north of the woods between Fresnes and the western angle of the Seille. The 6th Armored was in the midst of preparations for an attack north toward Delme when word arrived that the Third Army was to go over to the defensive. On 25-26 September the 35th Division relieved Grow's troops in the Forêt de Grémecy sector and CCB, 4th Armored Division, which had held a blocking position in the Fresnes area.

Since any continuation of the XII Corps advance appeared to be indefinitely postponed by General Eisenhower's order placing the Third Army on the defensive, the 35th Infantry Division settled down in anticipation of some respite from the interminable slogging that had marked the advance east of the Moselle. The 35th held a front some twelve miles in length, the Nancy-Nomény and Nancy-Château-Salins highways marking the left and right boundaries respectively. The larger part of this front (a distance of some eight miles) outlined a salient or bridgehead north and east of the Seille River. The apex of this salient was formed by the Forêt de Grémecey. Following the edge of the forest as it did, the American front line bent sharply, almost at a right angle, in the northeast corner of the woods. The Germans would attempt to exploit this disposition, for the forest angle lay only about two thousand yards from the Forêt de Château-Salins, which was still in German hands, provided ample cover for large-scale troop concentration, and was the dominant ground in this area. The right wing of the 35th Division was close to the junction of the two important enemy-held roads coming in from Morhange and Dieuze.

General Baade placed two of his regiments along the 35th Division main line of resistance, the 137th Infantry on the right and the 134th Infantry on the left. The 320th Infantry, which had returned from the 4th Armored Division, was assigned to the XII Corps reserve. The right regiment had hardly dug in when, on the evening of 26 September, the German guns opened fire from the Forét de Château-Salins and a sharp attack drove in the American outpost line. This was the prelude to a sustained and desperate enemy attempt to recover the Forét de Grémecey.

The First Army's failure to brush aside CCB, 4th Armored Division, in the earlier attack to effect a junction between the First Army and the Fifth Panzer Army, had brought General Knobelsdorff into General Balck's disfavor, although this was somewhat mitigated by the reverses suffered in the Fifth Panzer Army attack. Knobelsdorff was anxious to avoid a repetition of the First Army failure and ordered General Priess, who, as commander of the XIII SS Corps, was directing operations in this sector, to throw everything he had into a resumption of the attack on 27 September. Priess selected the village of Moncel, on the Nancy-Dieuze highway, as the initial objective--apparently hoping to punch a hole in the 35th Division line through which Manteuffel's Fifth Panzer Army could roll toward Nancy. To make this attack Priess had available the 559th VG Division (Generalmajor Kurt Freiherr von Muehlen), the 106th Panzer Brigade--elements of which already had been used against CCB in the fight at Fresnes--and the 59th Regiment of the 19th VG Division. Both of the infantry formations were new and relatively untried as units; both were somewhat under regulation strength. The 559th VG Division had a large number of veterans and, unlike many of the other VG divisions, most of its infantry came from the younger mobilization classes. The officers and noncoms were young and able veterans from the Eastern Front. The artillery regiment of the 559th was at average strength, with two light battalions and one medium. One company of tank destroyers replaced the conventional assault gun battalion as antitank defense. The 106th Panzer Brigade had been re-equipped but did not yet have a full tank complement. Balck had tied a string on the 106th by ordering Priess to send it to the Nineteenth Army the moment the combined First Army and Fifth Panzer Army attack reached the Moncel-Arracourt line.

The 559th VG Division and 106th Panzer Brigade launched their attack on the morning of 27 September as scheduled, although Priess had to be satisfied with a piecemeal commitment since some elements of both these formations had not yet arrived in the XIII SS Corps area. The 2d Battalion of the 1127th Regiment (559th VG Division) led off in an attack down the Chambrey-Pettoncourt road which took the Americans completely by surprise. The German tanks and infantry wiped out a road block east of Pettoncourt manned by troops of the 1st Battalion, 137th Infantry, overran four antitank guns, and drove on into the village of Pettoncourt, where the main American supply route crossed the Seille River. At Pettoncourt a scratch force made up of a battery of light antiaircraft artillery, some pieces from the 219th Field Artillery Battalion, and an antitank platoon from the 137th Infantry brought the German attack to a halt, although the enemy grenadiers were close enough to bring the gunners under rifle fire. (During this fight 1st Lt. Odie T. Stallcup, 1st Battalion, 137th Infantry, led his antitank platoon with such bravery that he received the DSC.) When reserves arrived from the 320th Infantry the German force withdrew slowly toward Chambrey, but lost the entire rear guard platoon when the American artillery located the range and began time fire. A second enemy column, with a few tanks and half-tracks, drove toward Grémecey, but was checked about a mile east of the village by artillery fire.

At the northeastern edge of the forest the enemy filtered in from the Forêt de Château-Salins during the morning and at some points broke through the position of the 3d Battalion, 137th Infantry. This attack drove as far as the regimental reserve line, where a company from the 737th Tank Battalion and the 752d Field Artillery Battalion--firing its 155's at point-blank range--helped the 3d Battalion to retake most of the lost ground. During this fight the Germans attempted to reinforce their assault force in the forest, but the 35th Division brought four artillery battalions into action to interdict the clearing between the Forêt de Grémecey and the Forêt de Château-Salins, and few of the enemy got through.
 

Stallcup's Crew - 601st Squadron - 4 August 1944


Harold Stallcup was from Rutherfordton County, NC and flew 30 combat missions. Of significance is the target of Mission 61. Peenemunde is where the German V-1 and V-2 rockets were developed.
 

Back Row (viewer's left to right):
1
2nd Lt. Ernest A. Schoen, Co-Pilot
2. 2nd Lt. Bernard T. Laizer, Navigator
3. 2nd Lt. David M. Duncombe, Bombardier
4. 2nd Lt. Harold K. Stallcup, Pilot
 

Front Row (viewer's left to right):
1.
  S/Sgt. Sidney K. Trigher, Engineer
2.
  Sgt. Emmett F. Ahlborn, Waist Gunner (flew as Ball Turret Gunner this mission)
3.
  Sgt. George Gouveia, Ball Turret (flew as Waist Gunner this mission)
4.
  Sgt. Solomon Hatkoff, Tail Gunner (normally Waist Gunner)
5.
  T/Sgt. Harold P. Loveless, Radio
 

Comments:
1.   398th Mission No. 61 Peenemunde Germany, 4 August 1944
     Crew Mission No. 22
2.
   On this mission the Stallcup crew flew in the High Group
3.
   Aircraft flown: 42-97394 3O-P,  (B-17) Kentucky Colonel
4.
   Aircraft in photo: probably 42-97394, Kentucky Colonel
5.
   Photo Date: 4 August 1944
6.
   Photo Location: Nuthampstead
7.
   Photo Reference No. A9221

Information compiled by UK Friends of the 398th with thanks to Harold Stallcup & Gary Goveia, son of George Gouveia.

 

ORAN H. STALCUP

 

First Lieutenant, U.S. Army Air Forces, Service No. O-766749, 354th Fighter Squadron, 355th Fighter Group, killed in action when ditching in the Channel 10th February 1945 flying P-51D serial no. 44-13571 354 Squadron. Entered the Service from California. Awarded Air Medal with 3 Oak Leaf Clusters, Purple Heart.

No known grave. Commemorated on Tablets of the Missing at Cambridge American Cemetery, Cambridge, England.

 

STEEPLE MORDEN  355th - Roll of Honour

World War 2 - Roll of Honour with detailed information compiled and copyright © 2005 Martin Edwards. The memorial stands outside the old Steeple Morden fighter base (AAF Station F-122). This was manned by USA personnel during World War 2 and from here flew P-47 Thunderbolts and P-51 Mustangs. The centre section describes the various squadrons making up 355th Fighter Group. This is flanked by two columns, one giving the history of the group and the second the units assigned to the station. The outer columns name those men who died from the base; the left most column being the American servicemen and the right most column Commonwealth servicemen.

The airfield started its career as a satellite for nearby Bassingbourn in late 1940 and was occupied by Wellingtons. Plans were drawn up by Fighter Command to use alternative airfields should the invasion of Southern England take place. Steeple Morden was selected to take aircraft from Northolt. The airfield was bombed twice with Wellingtons being damaged in the process. The base was used more for training while Bassingbourn's concrete runways were being laid. Eventually they moved away and the base was handed over to the Americans who carried out construction work to make it into a bomber station. The 5th Photographic Group were the first Americans to see service at the base and they were commanded by Colonel Elliott Roosevelt, the US President's son. They used converted P-38s.

It was realized that Steeple Morden was not really suitable for a Class A bomber airfield so it was relegated to a fighter station. The 355th Fighter Squadron was activated 15th November 1942, at Hamilton Field, CA, flying the P-39 Airacobra. The unit trained in California, Nevada, Oregon, and New York before transferring to the 9th Air Force in England in November 1943. The 355th Fighter Group moved into Steeple Morden with P-47Ds although it took some time for the unit to become operational because of the short supply of aircraft. After a slow start they were re-equipped with P-51s and went on to become one of the most successful fighter units of the war, strafing aircraft on the ground. Aircraft from here were also used to escort B-17s on a bombing mission on Polish oilfields, made possible by the use of drop tanks. The 355th's last mission was on 25th April 1945 by which time they had recorded 868 victories.
 

First Lt. Wayne L. Stalcup   Company A - Tank Platoon

The 42nd Tank Battalion of the 11th Armored Division was led with honor and distinction in combat.

Wayne L. Stalcup was born in Midland, IN 1921. He served in the U S Army during 1942-1946 and saw combat during WW-2 in France, Belgium and Germany. He participated in the Battle of the Bulge, and campaigns in Alsace, Rhineland and Central Europe.
 

Below is a portion of the 1944-45 history record of the 42 Tank Battalion of the 11th Armored Division recorded in the Library of Congress, American Folklife Center, Veterans History Project. One problem facing historians when the unit histories were released is that after more than half a century the meaning of a lot of the abbreviations and acronyms has been lost. A taste of the problem is illustrated in this excerpt. This is combat action during the Battle of the Bulge.
 

27-28 December - The battalion remained in concealed bivouac and conducted maintenance of vehicles, radios, and weapons in preparation for further action. Track extensions were received, and installation began immediately. At 2300, the battalion received an order that it would move at 0215 on 29 December to an undisclosed destination over a route which would be marked by guides. Additional information of the move would be received enroute. Radio silence was stressed. The battalion was alerted and the march order was issued to Company and attached unit Commanders.

29 December - Preceding elements of CCA were late in reaching the initial point due to icy road conditions and as a result the battalion did not leave bivouac until 0220. The battalion marched a distance of 78 miles, most of it during darkness to a new concentration area north of Tornquay, Belgium. Bivouac security was immediately set up and contact was established with the 63rd AIB which was located on our east flank. The preparation of vehicles and weapons for immediate action was stressed.

30 December - The 42nd Tank Battalion was assigned to the mission of seizing the villages of Remagne, Tillet, and the high ground NE of Flamierge, Belgium by CCA order at 0130.The 42nd Tank Battalion (except for Company A which was attached to the 63rd AIB) was to be known as Task Force Blue and to be composed of the following troops:

 

Task Force (TF) Blue: 42nd Tank Battalion (minus A Company); Company A 63rd AIB; Company B 602nd Tank Destroyer (TD) Battalion; and 1st Platoon Company A 56th Engineer Battalion

The plan of attack was that TF Blue would follow TF White (63rd AIB Reinforced) until terrain suitable for a tank attack was reached, at which time TF Blue would pass through TF White and continue the attack. In the case that TF Blue was held up by ground that was too soft for tanks and would require Engineer work, TF White was to pass through TF Blue and continue the attack. At 0745 TF Blue proceeded North to the vicinity of Leneville, Belgium where it deployed behind TF White. When the advance of TF White was held up by strong enemy resistance consisting of SA, AW, and AT fire South of Remagne, TF Blue sent patrols to both flanks to determine enemy positions and possible routes for envelopment. Also Company B 602nd TD was sent to protect the left flank of the Task Force and later one platoon of Company B, 42nd Tank Battalion was sent to give additional protection.

31 December - On order of CCA, TF Blue at 0145 marched to a new assembly area located SE of Morhet, Belgium, where the Battalion prepared immediately for action. At 1230 the Battalion Commander briefed Company and attached unit Commanders on the plans for the attack. The mission of the 42nd Tank Battalion was to seize the high ground in the vicinity of Renuamont, Belgium. At 1800, the village of Rechrival was taken and due to darkness the town was organized for defense. During the night the village of Rechrival was the target of very intense enemy artillery, mortar, and rocket fire causing numerous casualties to the infantry and personnel not in tanks. An enemy infantry counterattack at 2200 was repulsed with considerable loss to the enemy. No further counterattacks by the enemy were made. Harassing and interdictory fire by friendly artillery was conducted throughout the night. During this period considerable German activity could be heard. A German equipped with a radio was captured on the outskirts of the village at 2400.

1 January 1945 - During the early hours of the morning all buildings were checked over and 15 Germans were taken prisoner. While this check was being made tanks were moved up from the village in order to forestall any possible counterattack by the enemy. Though coming under strong Anti-Tank (AT) and S/A fire the tanks knocked out several enemy SP guns which had been moved into position during the night. Several were destroyed by 88mm AT fire at this time. At 1130 an enemy counterattack of approximately a reinforced company of infantry supported by five tanks, artillery and mortars developed North and Northeast of Rechrival, but were repulsed by the Battalion with heavy losses to the enemy both in personnel and material. At 1515, the 42nd Tank Battalion with Air Support and all available artillery made a coordinated attack against AT guns, infantry and AW fire in the Millomont-Hubermont area. In spite of the large number of Anti Aircraft (AA) weapons, SP guns and tanks, the objective was taken, but due to the lack of troops to hold the ground gained and keep supply lines open the 42nd was ordered by CCA to withdraw to Rechrival and organize at the town for defense. The town was immediately organized for defense and no counterattack was made by the enemy. Between 1930 and 2000, one enemy airplane bombed Rechrival three times scoring a near miss on one tank which was not damaged. However, two men standing near-by were killed. The rest of the night was marked with scattered artillery fire which did no damage.
 
4 January - On order of CCA, the 42nd moved to Jodenville, Belgium where it became part of the mobile reserve for the 17th Airborne (AB) Division.

8 January - Company B 602nd TD Battalion, was disposed along the North edge of the woods SW of Millomont.

9 January - The 42nd moved from the vicinity of Jodenville to Villeroux, Belgium, in order to perform its mission more effectively. The Battalion closed into bivouac at 1645.

10 January - During the day extensive reconnaissance was made. In order to improve the camouflaging of the tanks and halftracks, all combat vehicles were painted white. 11 January - Liaison with the 193rd Infantry Regiment of the 17th AB Division was established and minefield information was secured. At 1500 Company C 42nd Tank Battalion was moved to bivouac 800 yards north of Isle La Hesse, Belgium, and established liaison with the 513th Infantry Battalion of the 17th AB. The Assault Gun Platoon continued firing missions with the 490th AFA during the night.
 
12 January - During the morning the Battalion Commander and the Executive Officer went on a reconnaissance for routes and areas to the North and NE of Bastogne, Belgium. The Battalion moved from bivouac in the vicinity of Villeroux to the vicinity of Longchamps, Belgium. There it relieved at the 101st AB Division. The Battalion Commander received the attack order from CCA and returned and issued it to the Company Commanders and attached unit Commanders at 0030. Company C 811th TD Battalion was enroute to Longchamps from a position South of Bastogne.

13 January - The 42nd attacked at 1030 and when the 63rd AIB was held up by S/A, AW, and mortar fire the Battalion passed through the Infantry and continued the advance for about 500 yards when the leading Company was held up by a minefield. First Platoon Company A 56th Engineers was rushed forward and gapped the field. The advance was continued until the high ground 500 yards South of Bestogne was reached where the attack was stopped. Heavy mortar, artillery, and high velocity weapons fire was received during the night inflicting several casualties. A searchlight located North of Bertogne was used by the enemy most of the night lighting up the area for evacuating vehicles and withdrawing from the area. Friendly artillery fired harassing and interdictory fire throughout the night. Numerous white and red flares were sent up by the enemy most of the night over the Bertogne-Compogne Road. the lighting up of these flares was followed by German Aircraft flying over this area, however, no attack was made by them.

14 January - Company B 42nd Tank Battalion was attached to the 55th AIB which had been assigned the mission of clearing the woods and high ground to the SE of our position. During the day tanks, assault guns, and mortars fired on enemy personnel and vehicles located along the Bertogne-Compogne Road and the Pied du Mont woods which were 1200 yards NE of our position. The enemy fired mortars during the night inflicting casualties. Enemy mortar fire during the day killed three enlisted men and one officer while wounding eight other enlisted men. One tank was knocked out of action due to a direct hit in the turret by enemy mortar fire.

15 January - The 42nd Tank Battalion (-C Company) was attached to Task Force Bell with the mission of supporting by fire the attack of Task Force Stubbs on Pied du Mont woods. Company C was to make the Tank-Infantry attack on Pied du Mont woods after air support and a fifteen minute artillery preparation. Companies of the 42nd were disposed at first light so as to be able to give fire support to the attack. The objective was taken at 1130, and the command was reorganized in preparation for continuing the attack on Compogne, Belgium. Company C 42nd Tank Battalion was moved to the high ground SW of Compogne from which position it could give fire support if necessary. During the attack on Pied du Mont woods no casualties were suffered by the 42nd. From the light opposition it was apparent that the preparation fire of the artillery and the air support had driven the enemy from the woods. At 1300, the 42nd and the 63rd AIB attacked the villages of Compogne, and Rastadt, Belgium. At 1530 Compogne and Rastadt were taken and the town was organized for defense. The action resulted in heavy casualties to the enemy in personnel and equipment. 17 enemy officers and 350-400 enlisted men were taken prisoner. The 42nd had one casualty and two tanks were temporarily out of action when their suspension systems were damaged by an enemy minefield. At 1630 Task Force Bell issued orders to the 42nd to continue the attack to Villeroux, Mabompre, and Houffalize, which was the Division’s objective. The Battalion immediately started the attack and ran into very heavy enemy AT and Tank fire in the vicinity of Mabompre. At 1700 Villeroux was seized and the supporting infantry of Company C 63rd AIB started to clean out the town. The enemy immediately launched a strong counterattack consisting of one company of infantry and 10-15 tanks. Due to darkness, Company C 42nd Tank and Company C 63rd AIB withdrew to high ground on the West edge of Villeroux and reorganized for defense. A Company 42nd advanced along the Compogne-Mahompre road to the outskirts of Mabompre, encountered heavy AT gun fire, but continued the advance to the outskirts of Mabompre. The 42nd and the 63rd organized the Compogne-Rastadt area for defense. Unobserved enemy mortar fire landed on this area during the night, however, no casualties were suffered. During this action, Company C 42nd Tank suffered no personnel or material losses. A Company 42nd Tank had six tanks put out of action by enemy fire during this action. Three of these tanks were later returned to action; the other three burned when hit. Light casualties were suffered and one Officer and five enlisted men of Company A are missing in action as a result of this attack.

16 January - The 42nd and 63rd attacked at 1000 with the mission seizing the high ground South of Houffalize, Belgium. The objective was taken at 1320 and organized for defense. Enemy resistance consisted mainly of S/A, AW. and mortar fire. No casualties were suffered during this action. At 1600 the 42nd was relieved and withdrew to a position on high ground South of Houffalize.

17 January - Orders were received that the 42nd would move at 0800 on 18 January to the vicinity of Longchamps, Belgium.
 

18 January - The 42nd marched from bivouac at 0800 to Longchamps. Due to icy condition of the roads the Battalion did not close in bivouac until 1500. The balance of the day was spent in maintenance and cleaning of vehicles and equipment.



THE CASE OF EDWARD STALCUP
Report on Homicides of Adults in Ross County, Ohio, 1798-1900
 

Both men were Swedish and were cousins. The court record identified Edward as German. Family stories passed down have it that Edward came home and found Asa Mounts in bed with his wife and that was the cause of their argument. No confirmation of this has been found. Edward’s widow apparently remarried a very few days after his death. His children later moved to Wisconsin maintaining that they were German and had immigrated directly into Wisconsin from Germany.
 

SUSPECT(s):
VICTIM(s):

Weapon: 
Circumstances:  
Inquest: 
Indictment?
Term?:
Court proceedings:
Legal records:

Edward Stalcupp
Asa Mounts
[hand]gun
An argument in their room [at a tavern?]

Yes, murder

DEATH.  Hanged 8/3/1804.
 

Newspaper:
      
       SCGA (apparently initials of a newspaper) AS, 1/2/1804 (M): HOM: Edward Stalcup of Ross Co. arrested on Th[ursday] evening, 12/29/1803 for murder of Asa Mounts the night before. He confessed to Thomas Scott. The circumstances are printed. "Thursday evening last, Edward Stalcup of this county, was committed to jail for the murder of Asa Mounts, the preceding evening.

       On examination before Thomas Scott, Esq. previous to his commitment, he voluntarily confessed, that Mounts and himself had had a difference, soon after which Mounts lay down upon a bed in the room; that he (Stalcup) asked the deceas'd a question, which he not answering, Stalcup told him that if he did not answer the second time asking, he would kill him (having then a loaded gun in his hand;) the question being repeated and the unfortunate deceased still remaining silent, Stalcup immediately shot him through the body. An inquest was held on the dead body the day following, who returned their verdict, willful murder, by the hands of Edward Stalcup."

       SGCA, 5/21/1804 (M): HOM: note about the trial of Edward Stalcup for murder of Asa Mounts in the Supreme Court. Also the trial of John Brandy for the murder of Joseph Fitzgerald at the salt works. ES: T last, fG of murder. Sentence not yet passed. JB: Th following, fG of manslaughter. Sentence: branded with the letters M S--"which was executed the same evening."

       SGCA, 5/28/1804 (M): HOM: Edward Stalcup sentenced to death for murder of Asa Mounts. Will be executed Friday, 8/3/1804. [info as it appears in the paper]

       SGCA, 8/6/1804 (M): HOM: Edward Stalcup executed in Chillicothe, F, 8/3, for murder of Asa Mounts. [same words]

       SGCA, 8/13/1804 (M): HOM: Michael Baldwin writes letter to editor regarding the confession of Edward Stallcup for murder of Asa Mounts. Stallcup gave Baldwin letters to his brother and wife just before the execution.
 
"Mr. Willis,
 

   As several false reports are in circulation respecting a confession made by Edward Stallcup, a short time before his execution, I deem it my duty to correct such reports, by a short statement of facts.  The day before the execution I was in the prison with the deceased--he informed me that he had been requested to make a confession, and requested my opinion.  I told him, that he ought to devote his whole time to making his peace with the Almighty:  He was of the same opinion.  The next day, a short time before he went to the place of execution, he gave me a bundle of papers through the grates of the prison, observing at the same time, that when I looked at them I would know what to do with them.  I did not peruse them until after his death, when I found them to be letters to his brother and wife, with a request that I should deliver them.  They contained nothing of the nature of a confession.  When I was in prison with him as before mentioned, I asked him for my own satisfaction concerning the death of Asa Mounts.  He acknowledged that he shot Mounts, and that he at the time of the death of Mounts, knew good from evil.  This is the substance of the verbal confession he made to me, and the only one he ever made of any kind, to my knowledge.


MICHAEL BALDWIN                Aug. 11, 1804."


=============================================
 

 

This article is reported to have appeared in the Russellville, Russell County, Kentucky newspaper on July 31, 1809. The Peter Stalcup involved has not been identified.



JOSEPH STALCUP
Western Weekly Review (Newspaper)
August 1842    Franklin, Tennessee

 

MURDER OF WILLIAM KOPMAN. -- Mr. Wm. Kopman, of the firm of Hayward & Kopman, of Fulton, Ark., was murdered at Batson's stand in Humphrey's Co., Tenn., on the 2d Aug. Mr. Kopman was on his way to Winchester, and spent a day or two in Memphis as he came on from Fulton. He was known to have in his possession several thousand dollars, for which he lost his life. Mr. Kopman was a relative of M. Sidney Kopman, merchant of Memphis; was born in Vienna: he had resided for the past 12 years in New York, and Columbus, Ga., and has a brother living in New Orleans, a sister living in Pensacola, and near connexion residing in New York, all of high respectability. The deceased is represented to us as having been an accomplished gentleman, of fine education, and a most estimable man.

We have been put in possession of the following particulars of the murder, from a gentleman residing at the place where it occurred. Mr. K. put up at Col. Hunt's, 11 miles east of Waverly, on Monday night, the 1st day of Aug. He left there the next morning after breakfast, and in a few hours afterwards his horse returned to Hunt's, stripped of saddle, bridle, &c. On Thursday evening, the 3d of August, he was found about 4 miles from Hunt's, some twenty steps from the road. The next day a jury of inquest was held over his body, and the verdict of the jury was, that he came to his death by the discharge of a large pistol, rifle or yager (*) the ball of which took effect in his head, greatly fracturing the skull, by some persons to them unknown. He was buried near the place where he was found, on the roadside. Search was then made by the jury and persons present for his saddle-bags, hat, saddle, &c., which were found three or four hundred yards from the road.

A man by the name of
Joseph Stalcup is suspected of having committed the murder. He stayed at Hunt's on Sunday night. He said he was from Washington, Ark. Kopman saw his name on the register, and said he knew him. The same man was supposed to have been seen sitting on the road-side where Kopman was murdered on Monday evening. Some persons think they saw Stalcup pass on the Nashville road 5 or 6 times from the place on Tuesday evening — his yager rendered him rather more conspicuous than he would have been, almost every person that saw him being attracted by it. Several persons have gone in pursuit of him.
 
Since writing the above, we learn that
Stalcop has been arrested and brought back. Also that when he arrived at Hunt's he remarked to Hunt: "You say I am the murderer, you d---d villain. You are the murderer, sir." (Mr. Stalcop has been honorably acquitted at Gallatin. — Ed. Whig) We also learn that Hunt is under arrest. Suspicion was aroused against Hunt from the circumstances of the deceased's horse finding his way back to his stable, and he saying nothing about it for two or three days, or until the murder was known.

By reference to our advertising columns, it will be seen that his brother (of William Kopman), residing in New Orleans, offers a reward of $200 for the discovery of the murderer. --- Fort Pickering Eagle.

* A 19th century German made rifle used by Light Infantry, Hessian troops brought them over during the Revolutionary War. German gunsmiths in PA evolved it into the PA rifle and later into the KY rifle.
 
 

Larry: 

This tragedy occurred on the Fourth of July 1905 in the hamlet of Park Indiana in Greene County, Indiana. Ira Stalcup was 31, his wife Lillian Dobbins Stalcup was 29 and daughter Helen 5. They had lost a baby son Paul in 1898. Ira was the Grandson of pioneer Hance Stalcup who did the initial survey for the town of the county seat Bloomfield in 1821; and Great Grandson of "Honest John" Stalcup, a founder of the Orange County, Indiana Stalcup line in Southern Indiana.                  

Steven J. Stalcup.

 

MURDER  SUICIDE AT PARK

 (Extract from “THE BLOOMFIELD NEWS” dated July 5, 1905)

 

“Ira Stalcup commits suicide after killing wife and daughter.  Terrible ending to a prominent farmer family...woman shot while asleep, girl’s head almost severed and top of man’s head blown off.

One of the most terrible tragedies in the history of Greene County was committed at an early hour Monday morning when Ira Stalcup, a highly respected farmer, wiped out three lives.

Almost within the shadow of the Richland Church, occupying a little cottage of four rooms all their own, the family of three lived a life of domestic happiness, which the neighbors considered ideal.

When a neighbor stopped at the Stalcups to use the telephone, she found Mr. Stalcup near the center of the sitting-room in a pool of his own gore, his almost headless form with the weapon of destruction by his side and the entire room, including the furniture, presenting the appearance of a slaughter house.

The most generally accepted theory and one that is backed up by the strongest evidence is that about 4:30 am, when the neighbors heard the report of a gun, Mr. Stalcup arose in a fit of insanity, seized his shotgun and, taking deadly aim at the head of his wife, ten feet away, pulled the trigger....and the first act in the horrible drama was finished.

One stray shot struck the little daughter, Helen, in the neck and instantly she sprang up and started to get out of bed, when she was seized by her father, who with a razor in hand almost severed her head from her lifeless form, when found, was lying face down across the feet of her lifeless mother.... this ending the sickening story of the second act.

This done, the destroyer stepped into the sitting-room, removed from the gun the empty shell, which was on the floor, put in the fresh shell, rested his forehead on the muzzle and likely with his toe, touched the trigger and his entire head above the eyes was blown off and fragments of skull and brains were scattered not only over that room but every room of the house....thus ended the last act of the fearful tragedy.

He was inclined to brood and was dejected and gloomy, taking a rather dark view of life.  Some time ago, Mrs. Stalcup told her sister that her husband had been acting strangely, and she would not be surprised if he did something desperate.  She said that upon two occasions recently she had awoke and found him standing over her bed and gazing at her with a wild look, and, when she asked what was the matter, he said, ‘I don’t know unless the devil has got the upper hand of me.’  But she insisted that her sister not tell her parents nor anyone else.  He was reported to have said to some neighbors that there isn’t much in life but trouble.

One of the causes of his brooding, it is believed, lay in the fact that several years ago, while handling a gun, it discharged, killing his little brother.  Also, he had a son die. The funeral services were held from Walnut Grove, Wednesday at 3:00p.m. in charge of P.H. Fulk and was the most largely attended funeral ever known in the community.  Three hearses carried the remains to their resting place---the Mood Cemetery near the church---and all three were laid to rest in one grave....thus ended the terrible and pathetic story.”

=======================================

 

STALCUP MARRIAGE GONE BAD
Steven  J Stalcup

 

Larry:

Another Stalcup Saga.... Stephen Stalcup was the son of Eli Stalcup who migrated from Tennessee with his father to what became Greene County Indiana at about the time Indiana became a state in 1816. This Stephen has about a dozen Children, several of them boys, by three wives before he died in the 1860s. There would not have been the nearly as many Stalcups in Indiana if he had remained married and stayed in Tennessee.

Steve Stalcup - Greenwood, Indiana

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Sumner County, TN Lawsuit #10039
From the Loose Records of Sumner Co, TN

Stalcup, Stephen vs. Stalcup, Peggy, 1818
(Cavitt, Pill/Pull, Stalcup)

 

1818
To the Honorable Thomas Stuart of the of the county in and for The State of Tennessee.

Your Petitioner Stephen Stalcup who is a citizen of this state and has been a resident therein from his nativity to this leave represent to your Honor that sometime in January 1818 he intermarried with a certain Peggy [Margaret] Pitt of the county of Sumner and State aforesaid; that they lived together a few months, perhaps about four when he discovered that the said Peggy kept up an unusual intercourse with one Andrew Cavitt; that he always to said Peggy tenderly and affectionately before said discovery; that he was not guilty of adultery or any offense that was with the matrimonial vow after said marriage until he discovered that the said Peggy was guilty of the crime of adultery with the aforesaid Cavitt.  That his life and never since admitted him in to his as a wife; that after your Petitioner remained absent from this country about  four months and on his return found the said Peggy actually cohabited with the said Andrew as husband and wife and says she is married to him; that he and believes that she has a child by the said Andrew:  all of which deeds are with the matrimonial vow and have your petitioners conditions intolerable please your Honor to dissolve the bonds of matrimony subsisting between  your Petitioner and the said Peggy.
Signed  
Stephen Stalcup                                                                      

State of Tennessee
Sumner County

This day, Stephen Stalcup _ personally appeared before me, John Rutherford, and acting Justice of the Peace for said county  and made oath, that the facts contained in the petition are true to the best of his knowledge and belief and that said complaint is not made out of levity or by collusion between husbands and wife for the purpose of being freed and so separated from each other; but in sincerity and truth for the causes set forth in said petition.

Signed
Stephen Stalcup
Sworn to me this 20th day of Sep 1819
Signed John Rutherford

Stephen Stalcup vs. Peggy Stalcup
Petition filed 18 Sept 1819
April term 1820

Be it remembered that on the 19th day of April 1820 the last day of the above Term of Sumner Co. court the above case came on for in part the said Peggy Stalcup was called to come into court and answer the petition of the said Stephen for a divorce but came not; that it appeared to the satisfaction of The court that a copy of the said petition and delivered by the sheriff of This county; that the said Petitioner Stephen Stalcup also proved to the Satisfaction the court that the said Peggy was guilty of adultery as set Forth in his petition, it therefore ordered, judged, and decreed by the court That the marriage subsisting between the said Stephen Stalcup and Peggy Stalcup the above named parties be dissolved and the said Stephen Stalcup pay The costs of this suit.


RELATED FAMOUS OR INFAMOUS PERSONS
 

All families have people that are related via marriage. Often there is a person in the attached family that becomes well known for one reason or another. Below are several that are in this category and so connected, for better or worse, to the Stalcop family.
 

JOHN MORTON
(1725 – April 1, 1777)
 

John Morton was a farmer, surveyor, and jurist from the Province of Pennsylvania. A delegate to the Continental Congress, he provided the deciding vote that allowed Pennsylvania to vote in favor of the  Declaration of Independence. He was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and chaired the committee that wrote the Articles of Confederation.

John Morton was a cousin to Maria “Mary” Morton who, about 1711, married John Stallcop, son of Pietter Stallcop, as well as a cousin to her brother, also named John Morton, who married Margareta Stalcop.


 

John Morton was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, now part of Delaware County. He was a son of John Morton a colonist who came from Sweden with his great-grandfather, Mårten Mårtensson. The family originated in Finland and had migrated into Sweden several generations earlier. Finally Mårten Mårtensson moved on from Sweden to New Sweden across the Atlantic. The family name eventually was anglicized as Morton. His mother was Mary Archer.

His father died before he was born. When John was about seven years old, his mother remarried to John Sketchley, a farmer of English ancestry, who educated Morton. About 1748, John Morton married Ann Justis, the great-granddaughter of Johan Gustafsson from Kinnekulle, Skaraborg, Sweden who came to New Sweden on the ship Swan in 1643 on the Fourth Expedition and was initially stationed at Fort Elfsborg. Governor Risingh promoted Gustafsson to the rank of gunner, transferring him to Fort Trinity at Sand Hook, present New Castle, Delaware. He was there during the Dutch Invasion. Gustafsson was anglicized to Justice, Justis and Justus due to the difficulties non-Swedes had in pronouncing and spelling the name. The couple had nine children.

John Morton was an active member of the Anglican Church in Chester County. He was elected to the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly in 1756. The following year he was also appointed justice of the peace, an office he held until 1764. He served as a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. He resigned from the Assembly in 1766 to serve as sheriff of Chester County, PA. He returned to the Assembly in 1769 and was elected Speaker in 1775. Finally he was appointed as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in 1774.

Morton was a member of the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Second in 1775. He helped move Pennsylvania towards independence but he opposed the radical Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776. When Congress began the debate on a resolution of independence the Pennsylvania delegation was split, with Benjamin Franklin and James Wilson in favor of declaring independence, and John Dickinson and Robert Morris opposed. Morton finally sided with Franklin and Wilson. When the final vote was taken on July 2, Dickinson and Morris abstained, allowing Pennsylvania to unanimously support the resolution of independence. Morton signed the Declaration on August 2.

Morton was chairman of the committee that wrote the Articles of Confederation, but died, probably of Pulmonary Tuberculosis – TB, before the Articles were ratified. He was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence to die. He is was buried in the Old Swedish Burial Ground, also known as St. Paul's Burying Ground, in the city of Chester, Pennsylvania on Rt. 291 across from the old courthouse.

OLIVER EVANS
 

Oliver Evens, the son of Charles and Annika Stallcop Evans, was born Sept. 13, 1755, near Newport, Delaware—died April 15, 1819, New York C, NY, Annika Stallcop was the daughter of John and Maria Morton Stallcop. Oliver Evens was an inventor who pioneered the high-pressure steam engine (U.S. patent, 1790) and created the first continuous production line (1784).

One of twelve children Evans was apprenticed to a wheelwright as a teenager. Observing the trick of a blacksmith’s boy who used the propellant force of steam in a gun, he began to investigate ways to harness steam for propulsion but soon became distracted by a number of other industrial problems. Carding, or combing, fibers to prepare them for spinning was a laborious process constituting a bottleneck in the newly mechanized production of textiles. To speed this operation Evans invented a machine that cut and mounted 1,000 wire teeth per minute on leather, the teeth serving as an improved carding device.

In 1784, at the age of 29, he attacked another major industrial production problem, the age-old process of grinding grain. Building a factory outside Philadelphia and adapting five machines, including conveyors, elevators, and weighing scales, he created an automatic production line that provided all material movement throughout the mill. Waterwheels supplied power, and grain was fed in at one end, passed by a system of conveyors and chutes through the stages of milling and refining, and emerged at the other end as finished flour. The system, which greatly reduced production costs, was widely copied in American flour milling.

When Evans applied for patent protection, first to several state governments (1787) and later to the new U.S. Patent Office (1790), he added a third invention, his high-pressure steam engine. He continued to work on this for the next several years, envisioning both a stationary engine for industrial purposes and an engine for land and water transport. In 1801 he built in Philadelphia a stationary engine that turned a rotary crusher to produce pulverized limestone for agricultural purposes.


In 1806 Evans began to develop his noted Mars Iron Works, where, over the next 10 years, he made more than 100 steam engines that were used with screw presses for processing cotton, tobacco, and paper. Evans’ last great work, completed in 1817, was a 24-horsepower high-pressure engine for a waterworks.

Oliver Even suffered a stroke and died in New York shortly after being informed of a disastrous fire that destroyed his Mars Iron Works. He is buried in Trinity Cemetery, Broadway at 154th Street, New York, NY.

During World War II, the United States liberty ship SS Oliver Evans was named in his honor.
 

JONATHAN BROWNING

Born: October 22, 1805 at Brushby Fork, Gallatin, Sumner Co, Tennessee
Died: June 21, 1879 at Ogden, Weber Co, Utah

 

Jonathan Browning was born on a Tuesday, October 22, 1805 at Bushby Fork, Gallatin, Sumner Co, Tennessee, son of Edmund Lloyd Browning and Sarah Allen Browning. He married Elizabeth Stallcop (Stalcup) on November 9, 1826 at Bledsoe Creek, Tennessee.

Jonathon Browning Elizabeth Stallcop Browning

The Browning name has been synonymous with creative gunsmithing for generations. The Browning Arms Company has distinguished itself in armaments for nearly 120 years. The family tradition of creating exceptional firearms began with Jonathan Browning, the inventor of a repeating rifle. Family records and surviving guns evidence his unique gift as an inventive gunsmith.

Jonathan Browning was born and reared in rural Brushby Fork, Tennessee. Observing his father's struggle to reap a harvest from the rocky hillside led him to conclude he never wanted to be a farmer. But what else could he do? Brushby Fork was a community in name only and lacked even a schoolhouse and a church.

Employment opportunities were few and a career other than farming seemed impossible however, in his early teens a challenging opportunity presented itself when a neighbor discarded an unusable flintlock rifle. Even though the gun was missing parts and the lock was broken, Jonathan offered to work for one week for the neighbor in exchange for the discarded rifle. He later claimed that week was the only enthusiastic farming he ever did. Jonathan took the gun home and made the missing parts, repaired it, and then sold it to the neighbor for four dollars.

As word spread of his mechanical ability he was invited to be an apprentice to a blacksmith. During the next few years he learned the fundamentals of hand forging, welding, brazing, tempering, and soldering. By age 19, six feet, well-muscled Jonathan thought himself a competent gun maker, even though he had never met a gunsmith. Anxious to learn from a master craftsman, he borrowed his father's horse, rode thirty miles to Nashville, and convinced a gunsmith to apprentice him without pay. After three months of apprenticeship Jonathan Browning had mastered the trade.

He returned home to the rural countryside, married his sweetheart Elizabeth Stallcup (Stallcop) on November 9, 1826 at Bledsoe Creek, TN, and began a successful gun business. His success in Tennessee ended when reports circulated in the community of limitless land, free for the taking, in frontier Illinois. One by one his customers and then family members joined the westward migration to Illinois; and finally 28 year old Jonathan closed his shop, loaded two wagons and moved his supplies and family about 400 miles to Quincy, Illinois.

Quincy, favorably located on the Mississippi River, was a small but flourishing abolitionist frontier town in 1834. Newcomers were heartily welcomed and the Brownings from Tennessee quickly made new friends and acquaintances that were anxious to barter for the talents of the young gunsmith. His shop was an immediate success. However, he wanted more. He wanted to create new firearms.

Living at the time when flintlock guns were being eclipsed by the invention of the percussion cap and pre-loaded paper cartridges, Jonathan believed a multi-shot gun was possible and went to work. He invented a simple, practical repeating rifle and a six-shot repeater. Today these guns are a curio, but in the 1830s their continuous fire was unequaled by any contemporary gun found along the frontier of Illinois.

His repeating rifle had a number of ingenious features that became the trademark of Browning firearms. The most notable features were simplicity and operating ease. These inventions brought considerable local fame to Browning and orders for many guns. As Jonathan was energetic, his business thrived as he personally customized each lock, stock, and barrel for the buyers. Although the lands and grooves were cleanly cut and the locks worked smoothly, hammer marks from his hours of pounding can still be seen on the rifles he made. It is estimated that each gun took Jonathan two weeks to create from start to finish. He worked hour after hour to make just one gun and then bartered or sold it for a mere twenty-four dollars.

Nevertheless, the repeating rifle and six-shot repeater brought him instant local prominence. Jonathan enjoyed moving in the social circles of Quincy and having his opinion valued on almost any subject. He was elected by his constituents to the office of justice of the peace and relished being called Judge Browning. This position put him in contact with young lawyers, including Abraham Lincoln, who stayed overnight at his home on at least two occasions.

On one occasion Lincoln said, Judge, somebody told me that a youngster in the neighborhood broke his arm yesterday and you set it. Do you fix anything that breaks--plow, gun, bone? Jonathan laughed and nodded. It's a fine life you're leading here, Judge, mending anything that breaks. Looks funny at first glimpse to see a man welding a broken gun part for a farmer one day and the next day setting a bone for the farmer's son. Jonathan replied, Bone settings a lot easier. Nature does most of that welding. But if it's two pieces of iron, you've got to blow up the forge and pound. Nature won't help with that."

His position as judge also brought him into contact with exiled Mormons who were daily arriving in Quincy in the winter of 1839 from Missouri. These exiles had been subjected to an Extermination Order issued by the Missouri governor stating that The Mormons must be treated as enemies and must be exterminated or driven from the state. Curious about Mormonism and Mormons who were settling 43 miles north of Quincy in the dismal swamp they called Nauvoo, Jonathan went upriver to see them.

His meeting of the Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith led to his conversion to Mormonism. The reputation he had enjoyed in Quincy took a dramatic turn for the worse when news reached the community that Jonathan Browning was now a Mormon. Neighbors shunned the judge and his family. Seeking happiness with friends in his new faith, Jonathan sold his gun shop and home in Quincy and moved to Nauvoo. He purchased a half-lot on the east side of Main Street, where he and his family, including his wife and nine children, lived in a two-room log cabin until their brick house was built.

During his six years of residence in Nauvoo, Jonathan was the famed gunsmith of Main Street. He made one rifle after another for his customers, always experimenting with improving mechanisms for the firearms. However, the most unique feature of his Nauvoo guns was an engraved plate on the stock reading “Holiness to the Lord - Our Preservation'' Acquiring one of these valued antique guns today would be a great treasure for any collector.

When friction ignited between the Mormons and their near neighbors in 1846, Jonathan did not react by loading his gun and retaliating. Instead, he and his family followed the counsel of Brigham Young and fled from Nauvoo, willingly abandoning their property without recompense. He merely closed his shop and took his tools with him across the Mississippi River. He trekked through marshy loess hills of Iowa with other Mormon refugees, enduring the pains and sufferings of the wintry days and the chilling nights. He settled temporarily in Council Bluffs.

When the Mormon Battalion was being mustered at Council Bluffs during their trek west into the United States Army in 1846 to fight in the War with Mexico, Jonathan wanted to volunteer and lined up with his friend James Brown and the other recruits. Brigham Young took him by the arm and led him aside, saying, ”Brother Jonathan, we need you here.” Brigham wanted him to stay behind in Iowa to make and repair the guns necessary for the migrating pioneers. Jonathan's advertisement in the local Frontier Guardian newspaper read: “Improved Fire-arms revolving rifles and pistols; also slide guns, from 5 to 25 shooters. All on an improved plan.” It is estimated that he made 400 guns.

Children of Jonathan Browning and Elizabeth Stalcup Browning: David Elias Browning b.1829; md Charilla Abbott, Barbara Browning b. 1831, John Wesley Browning b. 1832; md. Annie Elizabeth Roper; James Allen Browning b. 1833, Asenath Elizabeth Browning b. Nov 7, 1835, Martha Browning b. 1838, Malvina Browning b. 1840, Nancy Browning b. 1842, Jonathan Alma Browning b. 8 Oct 1845, Melinda Vashti Browning b. 28 Nov 1847, d. 12 May 1926

Jonathan Browning and Elizabeth Stalcup Browning were living in District Number 21, Pottawattamie, Iowa on 30 August 1850. It is believed that Jonathan Browning married a second wife, Polly Rippy, sometime after 1830 or later. There is little information to substantiate this marriage. It was not until 1852 that Jonathan was invited by Mormon Church leaders to continue his journey to the West. He left his gunsmithing in Iowa and trekked to the Rocky Mountains as a captain of one of the pioneering companies. He arrived in the Salt Lake Valley with six wagons and nearly six hundred dollars cash, carefully hidden beneath a false bottom in a flour barrel. With that money he was able to start his business ventures again and was soon considered a prosperous Mormon.

Jonathan Browning married a third wife, Elizabeth Caroline Clark at respective ages of 48 and 37 on Friday, 17 March 1854 in Ogden, Weber Co, Utah. (The Pioneer, Feb 1953, Vol. 5, No. 3, Page 17 identifies this wife as Elizabeth B. Cook.) Children of Jonathan Browning and Elizabeth Caroline Clark:  John Moses Browning b. 23 Jan 1855, Matthew Sandifer Browning b. 27 Oct 1859.

Jonathan, at the age of 52, married a fourth wife, Sarah Ann Emmett on Monday, 29 March 1858 in Ogden, Weber, Utah. Children of Jonathan Browning and Sarah Ann Emmett: Jonathan Edmund Browning b. 26 Jan 1859, Thomas Samuel Browning b. 15 Apr 1860,  William W. Browning b. 1862, Olive E. Browning b. 1864, George E. Browning b. 1866.

Jonathan settled with his family in Ogden, Utah, where he once again opened a gunsmith shop. He had a shop on the east side of Washington Boulevard between 24th and 25th streets. As a resident of Ogden, Jonathan Browning soon became a leading citizen, being elected to Ogden City Council, served as probate judge of Weber County, was a member of the Utah Legislature and in the ecclesiastical sphere he was Bishop's counselor, a member of the Weber Stake High Council, and president of the High Priest's Quorum. Browning sharpened plows, shoed horses, set wagon tires, and repaired guns, and he also made some of the first nails, fire tongs, fire shovels, pokers, horseshoes, hoes, shovels, and grubbing hoes used in Weber County. In addition he developed the first iron-roller molasses mill made in Ogden. Unfortunately, he never made another gun. His famous son John Moses Browning, credited with over 120 patents for firearms, worked with his father in the gun shop. He said, “We ridiculed some of the guns we fixed, and I damned some of them when Pappy wasn't near, but it never occurred to us to make better ones. He was too old, and I was too young.

“Died of weariness,'' his son John said. “He had worked so hard that, finally tired out, he went to sleep and didn't wake up.''

 


 


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